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  • EUROPEAN COMMISSION DIRECTORATE-GENERAL

    JOINT RESEARCH CENTRE

    Institute for Energy and Transport

    Energy Security Unit

    EUR 25210 EN - 2012

    Preventive Action Plan and Emergency Plan

    Good Practices A review of EU Member State natural gas preventive action and emergency plans

    Peter Zeniewski

    Ricardo Bolado

    Francesco Gracceva

    Pavel Zastera

    Arne Eriksson

  • The mission of the JRC-IET is to provide support to Community policies related to both nuclear and non-nuclear energy in order to ensure sustainable, secure and efficient energy production, distribution and use. European Commission Joint Research Centre Institute for Energy and Transport Contact information Address: Postbus 2, NL-1755 ZG, Petten - Nederland E-mail: peter.zeniewski@ec.europa.eu; ricardo.bolado-lavin@jrc.nl Tel.: +31 (0) 224 56 5406 (/5349) http://iet.jrc.ec.europa.eu/ http://www.jrc.ec.europa.eu/ Legal Notice Neither the European Commission nor any person acting on behalf of the Commission is responsible for the use which might be made of this publication.

    Europe Direct is a service to help you find answers to your questions about the European Union

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    A great deal of additional information on the European Union is available on the Internet. It can be accessed through the Europa server http://europa.eu/ JRC 68736 PRINT: EUR 25210 EN ISBN 978-92-79-23080-6 ISSN 1018-5593 doi:10.2790/43658 ONLINE: ISBN 978-92-79-23081-3 ISSN 1831-9424 doi: 10.2790/43883 Luxembourg: Publications Office of the European Union © European Union, 2012 Reproduction is authorised provided the source is acknowledged Printed in Netherlands

  • 3

    Table of Contents

    1. Introduction............................................................................................................................................................................. 4

    2. Risk Treatment......................................................................................................................................................................... 5

    3. Preventive Action Plan............................................................................................................................................................. 7

    3.1 Preventive action plans in a European context ..................................................................................................................... 9

    3.2 Identification of key scenarios............................................................................................................................................. 10

    3.3 Set priority order ................................................................................................................................................................. 11

    3.4 The risk reduction loop........................................................................................................................................................ 12

    3.4.1 Design A Strategy For Each Scenario ............................................................................................................................ 12

    3.4.2 Assess strategy effectiveness........................................................................................................................................ 14

    3.4.3 Perform cost-benefit analysis ....................................................................................................................................... 15

    3.4.4 Estimate residual risk.................................................................................................................................................... 15

    3.4.5 Comparison with risk criteria / last scenario ................................................................................................................ 16

    3.5 Draft national Preventive Action Plan ................................................................................................................................. 16

    3.5.1 Consultation (decision on joint PAP)............................................................................................................................. 17

    3.5.2 Development of a joint PAP .......................................................................................................................................... 17

    3.5.3 Adoption of the PAP...................................................................................................................................................... 17

    4. Emergency Planning Review and Best Practices ................................................................................................................... 18

    4.1 Defining Crisis Levels ........................................................................................................................................................... 19

    4.2 Clarifying Actor Roles, Relationships and Responsibilities .................................................................................................. 21

    4.3 Designing Emergency measures .......................................................................................................................................... 25

    4.3.1 Supply side flexibility..................................................................................................................................................... 26

    4.3.2 Demand-side flexibility ................................................................................................................................................. 31

    4.4 Monitoring, Reporting and Periodic Review........................................................................................................................ 35

    4.5 The importance of regional cooperation............................................................................................................................. 37

    4.6.1 Prices and compensation.............................................................................................................................................. 40

    4.1.7 Carrying out exercises ...................................................................................................................................................... 41

    5. Conclusions............................................................................................................................................................................ 43

    6. References ............................................................................................................................................................................. 45

    7. ANNEXES................................................................................................................................................................................ 48

  • 4

    1. INTRODUCTION

    According to Regulation 994/2010 concerning measures

    to safeguard security of gas supply (referred to in the rest

    of this document as the Regulation), Member States with

    a gas system have to develop a Preventive Action Plan

    (PAP) and an Emergency Plan (EP) after obtaining the

    results of a full Risk Assessment (RA), as required by

    Article 9, and after determining the fulfilment or not of

    the Infrastructure Standard (Article 6) and the Supply

    Standard (Article 8). The obligation of establishing a

    Preventive Action Plan and an Emergency Plan is set out

    in Article 4, the actual contents of the PAP are set in

    Article 5, while Articles 10, 11 and 13 contain the

    requirements for an EP.

    The Preventive Action Plan aims at developing the right

    measures to either completely remove or to at least

    reduce the risks identified in the Risk Assessment, while

    the Emergency Plan aims at developing the measures

    needed to mitigate the adverse effects of a gas

    disruption, should it occur.

    This document is structured as follows. Section 2 puts the

    PAP and the EP in the context of a Risk Management

    process, finding their right place as the two key

    components of the Risk Treatment phase that follows the

    Risk Assessment phase. Section 3 describes the steps of a

    PAP performed in line with the Regulation and with the

    available general purpose Risk Management Standards.

    Additionally, much attention has been paid to the

    literature generated in the context of the different Gas

    Regional Initiatives (GRI) and of the Ten-Year Network

    Development Plan (TYNDP) and related Gas Regional

    Investment Plans (GRIP’s). Literature produced in some

    EU research Framework Programme (FP) projects has

    also been taken into account. Section 4 presents a

    thorough review of literature in the field of emergency

    planning and extracts a set of good practices. The

    literature review covers TSO network codes, relevant

    legal and regulatory acts, as well as independent

    research such as that found in relevant FP7 projects and

    international institutions like the International Energy

    Agency (IEA). This in

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