Preserving Virtual Worlds Computer Games & Digital Preservation.

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Preserving Virtual Worlds

Preserving Virtual WorldsComputer Games & Digital Preservation

OverviewDigital Preservation TodayTheoretical PerspectivesPreservation StrategiesData & Metadata / & Preservation SystemsPreserving Virtual WorldsWho cares about games?Game Preservation ProblemsGame Preservation SolutionsPVW2: Future Research

The Problem

Theoretical PerspectivesInformation TheorySampling & QuantizatonInformation Loss

Theoretical PerspectivesArchival TheoryAuthenticity & IntegrityDiplomaticsOriginal Order & Archival Bond

Theoretical PerspectivesLibrary Science

Functional RequirementsFor Bibliographic RecordsData ModelTheoretical PerspectivesOpen Archival Information System Reference Model

Theoretical PerspectivesOpen Archival Information System Reference Model

Preservation StrategiesConservationEmulationMigrationDocumentationRe-enactment

Preservation StrategiesThe Emulation vs. Migration WarsCreator Perpective vs. Consumer PerspectiveData & Metadata & Library of Congress Sustainability FactorsDisclosureAdoptionTransparencySelf-DocumentationExternal DependenciesImpact of PatentsTechnological Protection Measures

Data & Metadata & Preservation MetadataPREMISTechnical Metadata (MIX, TextMD)Format RegistriesPRONOM Unified Digital Format Registry

Preservation SystemsDspace + Fedora (Duraspace)LOCKSS (Stanford University)DAITSS (Florida Center for Library Automation)Archivematica (Artefactual Systems, Inc.)DPSP (National Archives of Australia)RODA (Portuguese National Archives)iRODS (DICE Center, University of North Carolina)Rosetta (Ex Libris)Preservation ServicesMetaArchive CooperativePorticoHathiTrustOCLC Digital ArchiveDuraCloud (Duraspace)Preserving Virtual Worlds 1

PVW Project GoalsTo help develop mechanisms and methods for preserving digital games and interactive fiction byInvestigating preservation issues through a series of archiving case studies;Developing basic standards for metadata and content representation;Archiving key representative content; andBuilding community awareness of issues.16PVW Project PartnersGraduate School of Library & Information Science, University of IllinoisMaryland Institute for Technology in the Humanities, University of MarylandCollege of Computing & Information Sciences, Rochester Institute of TechnologyStanford University LibrariesLinden Lab

17Project OutlinePhase I: Background research on preserving interactive behavior and case set definitionPhase II: Development of schema/ontologies necessary for representation and contextual information and recommendations for best practice in use of wrappersPhase III: Implementation and testing via ingest of content at Stanford and UIUC.18Phase I: Define and scope a case setBackground research on preserving complex interactive behaviorBackground research for schema development

You are in a maze of twisty little passages, all alike.

19Problems: Defining a Game Technically-/spacewar 3.1 24 sep 62 p1. 1 0000033/ 000003600061jmp sbf/ ignore seq. break 000004601561jmp a40 000005601556jmp a1/ use test word for control, note iot 11 00

20Problems: Defining a Game Socially

21No, one of the distinguishing features of an archive is the archival bond between materials and the way in which they contextualize each other and inform our interpretation of the whole collection. We are not just interested in preserving a game, or games; we are interested in preserving the knowledge and cultures around gaming.Problems: Bibliographic Control (or lack thereof)C DWARF STUFF

IF(IDWARF.NE.0) GOTO 60IF(LOC.EQ.15) IDWARF=1GOTO 7160IF(IDWARF.NE.1)GOTO 63IF(RAN(QZ).GT.0.05) GOTO 71IDWARF=2DO 61 I=1,3DLOC(I)=0ODLOC(I)=061DSEEN(I)=0CALL SPEAK(3)ICHAIN(AXE)=IOBJ(LOC)IOBJ(LOC)=AXEIPLACE(AXE)=LOCGOTO 71

22Bibliographic control of standards and technical documentsProblems: Money (or lack thereof)

23Problems: Copyright LawOrphan worksIntellectual Property Owners IndifferenceU.S. Legal Structure / Digital Millennium Copyright Act24Solutions: OAIS & FRBR Ontologies WorkExpressionManifestationItemSuccessorWhole/partTransformationRevisionTranslationSuccessorWhole/PartTransformationAlternateWhole/PartReproductionWhole/PartRepresentation InformationContextProvenance25Solutions: OAIS & FRBR Ontologies

DOOM 1MS-DOS EXESpecificationDOOM WADSpecificationContent InformationData ObjectRepresentation InformationPreservation Desc.Context InformationPREMISRecordProvenance InformationIntel 486 DevManualDOOM WADDOOMBinariesSpeed RunDOOM SpeedRun FileWorkExpressionManifestationItem26Solutions: XML Packaging

URI for Rep Info

URI for Rep Info

PVWOntologySolutions: Users as Curator

Video courtesy of Internet Archives Archiving VirtualWorlds Moving Image Collectionhttp://www.archive.org/details/virtual_worlds

28Solutions: User as Curator

Solutions: Representation InformationNo Existing SolutionUnified Digital Format Registry is not sufficient.Solution requires:Copies of Standards Documentstreated as first class objects of preservationincluding their own representation information and context information.Economies of scale.30Solutions: Play Well With OthersMetadata is expensive to produce.Archiving modern games is demanding of storage.So, avoid needless replication of effort by institutional specialization and sharing content & metadata.31Expense of metadata includes figuring out IP ownership issues and identifying/acquiring representation information.Metadata is expensive to produce and demands subject and technological expertise.Archiving modern games is demanding of storage, particularly given issues of versioning and storage of context information.So, avoid needless replication by institutional specialization in certain forms of game content, and insuring ability to share metadata and content as widely as possible.

Solutions: Hire a LobbyistRestore libraries and archives ability to make preservation copies even in the face of DRM technologies.Provide a safe harbor arrangement to enable libraries and archives to provide access to orphan works.Persuade game authors that their work has value beyond its commercial sale and that they should work with us to preserve it.

32Preserving Virtual Worlds 2

PVW2 Project GoalsTo determine the significant properties of games that must be preservedTo provide guidance to preservationists regarding the appropriate strategy to maintain significant properties34PVW2 Project PartnersGraduate School of Library & Information Science, UIUCMaryland Institute for Technology in the Humanities, University of MarylandCollege of Computing & Information Sciences, Rochester Institute of TechnologyStanford University Libraries

35Project OutlinePhase I: Significant Properties InvestigationContent Analysis of Game Case SetInterviews with Game Creators, Users & CuratorsPhase II: Strategies for PreservationEmulation ExperimentsMigration Experiments36Phase I: Define and scope a case setBackground research on preserving complex interactive behaviorBackground research for schema development

37PVW2: Content Analysis

Thank you!Prof. Jerome McDonoughGraduate School of Library & Information ScienceUniversity of Illinois at Urbana-Champaignjmcdonou@illinois.edu

Translation by Ms. Yan WangGraduate School of Library & Information ScienceUniversity of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign

Sheet1Basic InfoTitle:Typing of the DeadGenre 1:EducationalDeveloper:SmilebitRelease Date:copyright 2000 SegaGenre 2:HorrorPublisher:SegaPlatform: Sega DreamcastRating:Mature 17+Series:Typing of the Dead

CharactersPlayableNonplayableFriend/Foe?MinorFriend/Foe?PC1JamesNPC1HarryFriendzombies/monstersfoePC2NPC2AmyFriendcitizensfriendPC3NPC3GFriendBossesfoePC4NPC4GoldmanFoe

VisualsSetting: mixed city, waterways, ruins, corporate office parksCharacters: 3D model, but poor body mechanics, showing too much rotation on motions. Agents are business wear, Effects:

Title Screenanimated city scape with Fear font for titleLayers multiple and includes transparencyDimensionality2.5 D? Credit screenColor depth24 bitPerspectivefirst person with 3d person cut scenesCut scenesIntro cut on Curien Incident, inter-level narrative cutsColor tonalitydark pallete, lots of saturationFMVDetail/bit depth

AudioSound trackSound effectsVoice overs

QualityOKQualityOKQualityTinny, particularly for monstersChannelsstereoChannelsstereoChannelsstereoFormatADX Compressed 16-bitFormatADX Compressed 16-bitFormatADX Compressed 16-bit

Game PlayMechanicsfight and advanceNo. Players2 player maxProgressionNarrativeintersperse cut scenesTurn stylesimultaneous, selective targetingDialoguecut scenes only.NavigationRailWorld LevelsRaw points scoreyesActiontype or dieCharacter LevelsExperience pointsnoMenusSelect training/play modes, version of play modes, levels, options, ranking infoSkill Levels6 chapters of increasing difficulty, with options settings for 5 levels of difficulty and normal/large wordsAchievementsranking, of last 10

ItemsLifeWeaponsSega Dreamcast keyboardHit pointsPowerupsseveral, tranquilizers, malotov cocktails, pendantsLives4, max 5ArmornoneOthergenre dictionaries, molotov cocktails, tranquilizers, sulpheric acid

TechnologyHardwareSoftwareConsoleSega DreamcastOSMediaSega Dreamcast GDRomControllerKeyboardOther peripheralsNone

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