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<ul><li> 1. FLEA 2010 REVIEWUTILITIESSANITARY ANDPLUMBING SYSTEMS</li></ul><p> 2. IntroductionPLUMBINGP Is the art and technique of installing pipes,L fixtures &amp; other apparatuses in buildings &amp;for bringing the supply, liquids, substancesU &amp;/or ingredients &amp; removing them;M from the Latin plumbum for lead as pipesB were once made from lead.I refers to a system of pipes and fixturesinstalled in a building for the distributionN of potable water and the removal ofG waterborne wastes. 3. Introduction - historyPRACTICE OF PLUMBING IN THE PHILIPPINESP Birth of plumbing profession traced back to the 17th centuryLas Spaniards established Walled City known as Intramurosas a model community.U In 1902, the PLUMBING TRADE was duly recognized by thegovernment.M Master Plumber John F. Hass became the 1st Chief of Divisionof Plumbing Construction and Construction. A plumbing codeB based on the Plumbing Code of the US was incorporated intothe Building Code for the City of Manila.I In 1935 the National Master Plumbers Association of theN Philippines (NAMPAP) was organized and registered withthe SEC.G 4. Introduction - historyPRACTICE OF PLUMBING IN THE PHILIPPINESP City Ordinance 2411 known as The Plumbing Code for theCity of Manila was enacted with the consultation ofL NAMPAPU In 1954, the 3rd Congress of the Republic of the Philippinesapproved after the third reading House Bill No. 962. ThisM became Republic Act No. 1378.On June 28, 1955, R.A. 1378 known as the Plumbing Code ofB the Philippines was signed by President Ramon Magsaysay.I In December 21, 1999 pursuant t Section 4 of R.A. 1378,Joseph Ejercito Estrada approved the Revised PlumbingN Code of 1999.G 5. Plumbing System - FundamentalsPLUMBING SYSTEMP System includes all potable water supply and distributionpipes, all plumbing fixtures and traps; all sanitary andL storm drainage systems; vent pipes, roof drains, leadersU and downspouts; and all building drains and sewers,including their respective joints and connections;M devices, receptacles, and appurtenances within theproperty; water lines in the premises; potable, tap, hotB and chilled water piping; potable water treating or usingI equipment; fuel gas piping; water heaters and vents forsame.NSUPPLY DRAINAGEGPIPEFIXTURE PIPE 6. Plumbing System - FundamentalsPLUMBING SYSTEM COMPONENTSPWATER SUPPLY AND DISTRIBUTION SYSTEML SANITARY DRAINAGE AND DISPOSAL SYSTEMUMSTORM DRAINAGE SYSTEMBPLUMBING FIXTUREINFIRE PROTECTION SYSTEMG FUEL AND GAS PIPING SYSTEM 7. Plumbing System - Fundamentals PLUMBING CYLEP S U P P L YDISTRIBUTION U S ELWater Mains,Pressure, PlumbingUPiping Storage Tanks FixturesNetworksM S O U R C ECOLLECTIONBLakes, Rivers, Reservoirs Gravity, Piping NetworksITREATMENTDISPOSALN Treated waterreturned to theSewage Plants,NaturalSanitary andStorm Sewersoriginal source PurificationG 8. P WATER SUPPLYLANDUDISTRIBUTIONMBSYSTEMING 9. Water Supply and Distribution System definition Carries water from the water source, street main or aPpump to the building and to various points in theLbuilding at which water is used.COLD WATER SUPPLYU HOT WATER SUPPLYM WATERB plays an important part in the plumbing systemI Providing water is one of the most critical utility requirementN Universal SolventG 10. Water Supply and Distribution System WATER CYCLE 3 MAJOR STAGESPEVAPORATIONLUCONDENSATIONMB PRECIPITATIONING 11. Water Supply and Distribution SystemSOURCES OF WATERP RAIN WATERL Collected from roofs of buildings and special water sheds andstored in cisterns or ponds.U ADVANTAGEM Water is soft &amp; pure and is suitable for the hot watersupply systemB DISADVANTAGEIOnly a source during the wet seasonNStorage becomes a breeding place for mosquitoesGRoofs may not be clean 12. Water Supply and Distribution SystemSOURCES OF WATERP GROUND WATERThe portion of the rainwater which has percolated into the earth toL form underground deposits called aquifers (water- bearing soilformation).U From springs and wells and is the principal source of water fordomestic use in most rural areas.M ADVANTAGEUsually has an abundant supply;B requires less treatment because of natural filtering.I DISADVANTAGENMay have organic matter &amp; chemical elements usually treatment is suggested.G 13. Water Supply and Distribution SystemSOURCES OF WATERP NATURAL SURFACE WATER A mixture of surface run-off and ground water. Surface sourcesLincludes rivers, lakes, ponds and impounding reservoirs.UADVANTAGEUsually easy to acquire and in large quantities.MUsed for irrigation, industrial purposes and, when treated,Bfor community water supply.IDISADVANTAGEContains a large amounts of bacteria, organic, &amp; inorganicN substances; Purification &amp; treatment is necessary.G 14. Water Supply and Distribution SystemUSES OF WATERP NOURISHMENTL CLEANSING AND HYGIENEUCEREMONIAL USESMTRANSPORTATIONAL USESBI COOLING MEDIUMN ORNAMENTAL ELEMENTG PROTECTIVE USES 15. Water Supply and Distribution SystemPHYSICAL PROPETIES OF WATERP SURFACE TENSIONLThe ability to stick itself together and pull itself togetherU HEAT ABSOPTION/CAPACITYMThe ability to absorb heat without becoming warmerB CAPILLARITYIThe ability to climb up a surface against the pull of gravityN DISSOLVING ABILITY Known as the Universal SolventG 16. Water Supply and Distribution SystemWATER QUALITY PROBLEM AND THEIR CORRECTIONP PROBLEMS CAUSE EFFECTSCORRECTIONL1. Acidity Containscarbon dioxide Corrosion of non-ferrousPassing the waterthrough a bed ofUpipes Rusting &amp;crushed marble orlimestone toachieve alkalinity,Mclogging of steel pipesor adding sodiumsilicate.)B2. HardnessPresence of Clogging ofmagnesium and pipesBoilingIntroduction ofI calcium salts Impairedlaundry andwater softenersmade up ofN3. Turbidity Silt or mud incooking DiscolorationZeoliteFiltrationG surface or inground Bad taste 17. Water Supply and Distribution System WATER QUALITY PROBLEM AND THEIR CORRECTIONP PROBLEMSCAUSEEFFECTSCORRECTIONL4. Color Presence of Discoloration of ChlorinationorU Iron and manganesefixtures and laundry ozonation and file filtrationMB5. Pollution Contaminationby organicDiseaseChlorinationI matter orsewageNG 18. Water Supply and Distribution SystemWater treatment and purificationis any method that will remove one or more materials that makeP the water unsuitable for a given useLAERATIONWater is sprayed into the air to release any trapped gases and absorbU additional oxygen for better taste.MBING 19. Water Supply and Distribution System COAGULATION - FLOCCULATIONPprocess by which small sediment particles which do not settle well combine together to form larger particles which can be removed by sedimentationLCOAGULATION chemical process in which the coagulant reactswith the sediment to make it capable ofU combining into larger particles. FLOCCULATION physical process in which the sediment particlesM collide with each other and stick together.BING 20. Water Supply and Distribution System SEDIMENTATIONPsuspended solids are removed from the water by gravity settling and depositionLwater is passed through basins so sediments can settle through a period of timeUMBING 21. Water Supply and Distribution System FILTRATIONPwater is passed through layers of sand and gravel in concrete basins in order to remove the finer suspended particles.LUMBIDISINFECTION/ CHLORINATIONNmethod of introducing a controlled amount of chlorine to the water in order to attain a desired degree of disinfection.G 22. Water Supply and Distribution SystemWATER TREATMENT PROCESSPLUMBING 23. Water Supply and Distribution SystemWELLSP Wells are holes in the earth from which a fluid may bewithdrawn using manual or mechanical means such as drawL bucket, pump, etc.GENERAL TYPES OF WELLUSHALLOW WELL DEEP WELLMB TYPES OF WELL(ACCORDING TO METHOD OF CONSTRUCTION)IDUG WELLSNcan be constructed with hand tools or power tools depth of about 15 meters (50 ft)Gcan have the greatest diameter that a space may allow 24. Water Supply and Distribution SystemDUG WELLPLUMBING 25. Water Supply and Distribution SystemDRIVEN WELLSPA steel drive-well point is fitted on one end of the pipe sectionL and driven into the earth. The point may be driven into the ground to a depth of up to 15 meters (50 ft).UMBING 26. Water Supply and Distribution SystemBORED WELLSPThese are dug with earth augers are usually less than 30 meters (100 ft) deep. The diameter ranges from 2 to 30 inches. The wellLis lined with metal, vitrified tile or concrete.UMBING 27. Water Supply and Distribution SystemDRILLED WELLSPRequires more elaborate equipment depending on the geology of the site.LUsed for drilling oil and can reach up to 1000 meters in depth.UMBING 28. Water Supply and Distribution SystemJETTED WELLSPUse extreme water pressure so as not to affect existing foundation in the vicinity. It makes use of a suction pump above,Lwhile casing acts as the pump riser.UMBING 29. Water Supply and Distribution SystemPUMPS A pump is a device used to move fluids, such as liquids or slurries.PA pump displaces a volume by physical or mechanical action.LCLASSIFICATION OF PUMPSURECIPROCATING PUMP Pump having a plunger that move back and forth within a cylinderMequipped with check valves. The cylinder is best located near or below the ground level.BING 30. Water Supply and Distribution SystemCENTRIFUGAL PUMPPIt contains an impeller mounted on a rotating shaft. The rotating impeller increases the water velocity while forcing the water into aLcasing thus converting the waters velocity into higher pressure.UMBING 31. Water Supply and Distribution SystemTURBINE PUMPPA turbine pump has a vertical turbine located below groundwater levels and a driving motor located at groundLUMBING 32. Water Supply and Distribution SystemSUBMERSIBLE PUMPPIs basically a centrifugal pump complete with electric motors which are positioned underwater in a suitable bored hole that delivers theLwater to the surfaceUMBING 33. Water Supply and Distribution SystemJET (EJECTOR) PUMPPJet pumps are centrifugal pumps typically used for drawing water up from a well.LUMBING 34. Water Supply and Distribution SystemPISTON PUMPPIs a positive displacement reciprocating pump in which a plunger is driven backwards and forwards, or up and down by a mechanicalLworking head.U Water is sucked into a sealed vacuum by use of a piston.MBING 35. Water Supply and Distribution SystemSUMP PUMPPSump pumps are used in applications where excess water must be pumped away from a particular area.La pump used to remove water that has accumulated in a water collecting sump pit,UMBING 36. Water Supply and Distribution SystemWATER STORAGE FOR DOMESTIC USEP OVERHEAD TANK/ GRAVITY SUPPLY TANKL Does not have any pressure concernsbut relies on gravity to supply water toU fixtures below.Use in overhead feed systemMCOMPONENTSBSupply PipeIInlet Overflow PipeNDrip PanGGate Valves 37. Water Supply and Distribution SystemCISTERNPUsually built of reinforced concrete underground and connected with a pump.L PNEUMATIC WATER TANKUUsed in the air pressure system and often used with a pump.MMake use of pressure relieve valve to release excess pressure if necessaryBING 38. Water Supply and Distribution SystemHOT WATER TANKP Range BoilerSmall hot water tank (30-60 cmL diameter; 180cm max length)Made of galvanized steel sheet,U copper or stainless steelStandard working pressure limit is 85 to 150 psiM Storage BoilerB Large hot water tank (60-130 cmin diameter; 5m max length)I Made of heavy duty materialsheets applied with rust proof paintN Standard working pressure limitis 65 to 100 psi.G 39. Water Supply and Distribution SystemVALVES AND CONTROLSPFUNCTION OF VALVES Control of the water systemL --Start or shut down a systemRegulate pressureU --Check backflowControl the direction of waterM TYPES OF VALVESB GATE VALVE (Full-way Valve)I Used mainly to completely close orcompletely open the water line (doesN not control flow of water).Wedge Shape or Tapered Disc ValveG Double Disc Valve 40. Water Supply and Distribution System GLOBE VALVEControls the flow of water with aP movable spindle. Can reduce waterpressure (throttling).L3 typesU Plug Type Disc ValveMB Conventional Disc ValveIN Composition Disc ValveG 41. Water Supply and Distribution System CHECK VALVEMain function is to prevent reversal ofP flow (backflow) in the line.L 4 typesU Swing Check ValveM Lift Check ValveBI Vertical Check ValveNG Horizontal Check valve 42. Water Supply and Distribution System ANGLE VALVEPUsed to make a 90 turn in a line.LUFOOT VALVE Located at the lower end of the pump. UsedMmainly to prevent loss of priming of the pumps.BISAFETY VALVENUsed on water systems, heating systems, compressed air lines &amp; other pipe linesG with excessive pressure. 43. Water Supply and Distribution System TYPES OF FAUCETSPCOMPRESSION COCK Operates by the compression of a softLpacking upon a metal sheet.UKEY COCK Operates with a round tapering plugMground to fit a metal sheet.BBALL FAUCETI Constructed with a ball connected to the handle.NHOSE BIBBG A water faucet made for the threaded attachment of a hose. 44. Water Supply and Distribution SystemWATER DISTRIBUTION SYSTEMThe water service pipe, water distribution pipes, and the necessaryP connecting pipes, fittings, control valves and all appurtenances in orLadjacent to the structure or premises. PARTS OF WATER DISTRIBUTION SYSTEMUSERVICE PIPEM The pipe from the water main or other source of potable water supplyto the water distribution system of the building served.BWATER METERI Device used to measure in liters or gallons the amount of water thatpasses through the water service.NDISTRIBUTION PIPE/ SUPPLY PIPEA pipe within the structure or on the premises which conveys waterG from the water service pipe or meter to the point of utilization. 45. Water Supply and Distribution SystemPRISERLA water supply pipe that extends one full story or more to convey water to branches or to a group of fixtures.UMFIXTURE BRANCH The water supply pipe between the fixture supply pipe &amp; the waterBdistributing pipe.IFIXTURE SUPPLYNA water supply pipe connecting the fixture with the fixture branch.G 46. Water Supply and Distribution SystemCOLD WATER DISTRIBUTION SYSTEMPTYPES OF WATER DISTRIBUTION DIRECT (UPFEED)LINDIRECT - Down feed or Gravity SystemU- Hydro pneumatic System ( Air Pressure System) DIRECT (UPFEED)MWater is provided by the city water companies using normal pressure from public water mainBING 47. Water Supply and Distribution System DOWNFEED orPGRAVITY SYSTEMLWater is pumped into a large tank on top of the building andU is distributed to the fixtures by means of gravity.MBING 48. Water Supply and Distribution System HYDRO PNEUMATIC SYSTEM/ AIR PRESSURE SYSTEMPL When pressure supplied by city water supply is not strong enoughUM Compressed air is used to raise and push water into the systemBING 49. Water Supply and Distribution SystemADVANTAGES DISADVANTAGESPUpfeed SystemL1. Eliminates extra cost of pumps &amp;1. Pressure from water main istanks. inadequate to supply tall...</p>