precursors of the renaissance renaissance = french for “rebirth” (italian – rinascimento)...
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Precursors of the RenaissanceRenaissance = French for rebirth (Italian rinascimento)Denotes a self-conscious revival of the interest in ancient Greek and Roman texts and culture that is reflected in the work.
Nicola Pisano, Pulpit, Pisa Baptistery, 1259-1260, marble, combination of various styles
Gothic: lobed (triparite) arches, corner (trumeau-like) relief sculpture
Romanesque: round arches
Roman: relief sculpture panels (like the Ara Pacis and sarcophagi)
Greek: Corinthian columns
The lion at the base of the columns is symbolic of King Solomon (the wisest king from the Old Testament)
Pisano, relief of the nativity, also showing the annunciation and washing of the infant Christ, detail, pulpit, Pisa Baptistery, 1259-1260Mary is the most important figure, she is shown as the largest (hierarchical proportion) Her significances are:Queen of HeavenVirgin MaryMother of GodIntercessor between humans and God
Cimabue, Madonna Enthroned, c. 1280-1290, tempera on wood, 12 7 x 7 4
Very flat unrealistic space, throne looks as though it is floating, there is no structure under the base, She is depicted in a very Byzantine style with a gold background, flat halo, stylized drapery.The infant Christ is humunculus, right hand in the sign of the blessing, not grounded on the Virgins lap. The four men across the bottom are Old Testament prophets.
Giotto, Madonna Enthroned, c. 1310, tempera on wood, 108 x 68, the throne is grounded, looks as though it is sitting in real space. The virgins drapery is shaded to show a void between her legs and volume in her thighs. The infant Christ is portrayed more as an actual infant with baby fat rolls on his wrists and chubby cheeks. The throne is Gothic styling with lobed and pointed arches.
The Arena Chapel, Padua, Italy
Arena Chapel, Padua, interior view looking east, on the arch is a tempera panel depicting God enthroned, summoning Gabriel to fulfill the annunciation. On bottom of the wall around the perimeter, the Virtues and the Vices
God in Majesty calling the angel Gabriel to deliver the Annunciation
Gabriel and Mary from the Annunciation. She is looking across the arch at the angel Gabriel, her shading is voluminous, with shallow space portrayed as though through a stage setting. The balconies protrude to give the illusion of space.
Giotto, Nativity, Arena Chapel, Padua, c.1305, fresco
Giotto, Crucifixion, fresco, Virgin Mary is on the left in blue being supported by John, Mary Magdalene is in the center, the Roman soldiers are fighting over Jesuss cloak and one is holding a knife to divide it into pieces. Angels are holding cups to catch the blood from Christs hands.
Giotto, Last Judgment, Arena Chapel, fresco, on the west wall above the exit, Christ in the center in majesty, the twelve apostles span out beside him, an army of military angels are above, while two angels roll back the sky like a scroll to reveal the golden gates of heaven. Below the saved are on Christs right in ordered registers and he is summoning them. The damned are on Christs left and he is pushing them away. Satan is pictured devouring pour souls that are in a chaotic state surrounded by hell fire.
Giotto, detail of Last Judgment, Arena Chapel, Enrico Scrovegni (patron of the chapel), assisted by a monk presents a model of the Arena Chapel to three angels. It is said that Enrico built this church in penance for his father, Reginaldo Scrovegni. Dante assigned Reginaldo (richest man in Padua) to the seventh circle of hell because of money lending.
Giotto, Justice, Arena Chapel, fresco, illustrates the Italian concern with government reminiscent of Athena in the Parthenon, she is holding Nike in her hand, across the bottom frieze are horse riders (travel), dancing and agriculture.
Two styles of government are active in Italy; the princes and popes ruled the authoritarian states, republics and communes were more democratic
Virtues: four Cardinal Virtues - Prudence, Temperance, Fortitude, and Justice
Three Theological Virtues Faith, Hope and Charity
Vices (Deadly Sins): Pride, Covetousness, Lust, Envy, Gluttony, Anger and Sloth
Charity and Envy
Giotto, Stigmatization of St. Francis, exterior of Bardi Chapel, Santa Croce, Florence, after 1317, fresco, organized the Franciscan monks, took a vow of poverty and only way to survive is through manual labor or begging. His is said to have such deep faith that he received the stigmata.
Duccio, Maesta, 1308-1311, altarpiece, Siena Cathedral, tempera, set on a predella
Pinnacle = Annunciation of the death of the virgin to entombment Predella = beginning of Christs life
Detail of nativity, multiple scenes in one frame, washing of the infant, the birth, and the angels coming to shepherds to tell them about the birth of Christ.
Duccio, Maesta, 1308-1311, altarpiece, Siena Cathedral, tempera, flanked by John and Peter, other 10 apostles are across the top
Pinnacle = Christs miraculous appearance
Predella = His ministry
Back of Maesta, 26 scenes depicting the passion of the Christ
The Kiss of Judas, SantApollinare Nuovo, mosaic, early 6th century, Ravenna
Duccio, Kiss of Judas, from the Maesta, Siena Cathedral, 1308-1311, tempera on panel
Giotto, Kiss of Judas, Arena Chapel, Padua, c. 1305, fresco
Ambrogio Lorenzetti, Effects of Good Government in the City and Country, from the Allegory of Good Government, Sala della Pace, Palazzo Pubblico, Siena, 1338-39, fresco, entire wall 46 ft. long, He and his brother are thought to have died during the Black Death b/c nothing from them after 1347. From Siena but also worked in Florence and was exposed to Giottos style.Lorenzetti Video
Security, holding a scroll heeding a warning to those who do not obey the rules as set out by the good government, if the viewer can not or did not read the scroll, the evidence is also portrayed by the hung man in the gallows. Behind her lower leg (not pictured) is the Capitoline wolf, showing the link between Rome and Siena. The first secular piece we have seen since the Roman Empire became the Holy Roman Empire in the 4th century. Also the first time we are seeing a great spatial depth since Ancient Rome.
Ambrogio Lorenzetti, Allegory of Bad Government, Palazzo Pubblico, Siena, 1338-39, fresco, badly damaged but a few details are still clear.
Detail of a woman being attacked by soldiers, above her head are two men that have been hung in the gallows. Figures are closer to Giottos style because of the sense of volume. Woman has a gentle S curve.
Andrea Orcagna, detail showing figures invoking Death, from the Triumph of Death, 1360s fresco, two cripples and two blind men shown begging for death, inscription reads, Since prosperity has departed, O Death, the medicine of all pain, come and give us our last supper.Bubonic plague of 1348 killed 25 million people.
1329 famine1333 eclipse followed by a flood1335 small pox epidemic1340s both the Bardi and Peruzzi banks failed1348 bubonic plague a.k.a. the Black DeathIn Florence and Siena, between 50 to 70 percent of the residents have died, creating a population shift, economic depression, and radical changes in artistic patronage and style.A resurgence of religion is evident after the Black Death that stylization reverts to a strong Byzantine influence. Giottos style temporarily inactive until it was revived by the first wave of Italian painters during the 15th century.Series of Disasters in Western Europe
International Gothic Style
An entirely different mood characterized works from the 14th century. Wealthy court officials in Italy and France would commission works and often travel the artist to work in residence and pay them well. This travel resulted in a convergence of styles, generally known as International Gothic. This continued into the 15th century. (the best examples came out of French patronage)
Simone Martini, Saint Louis Altarpiece, c. 1317, tempera on panel, main panel, the predella panels contain scenes from the life of Saint Louis.
Now that we have patrons, we also have a back story. (reasons for the commission) King Robert of Anjou had this piece made to honor his brother Louis of Toulouse, a Franciscan monk.
Robe is highly embroidered and meant to resemble velvet (originally decorated with real jewels). He is crowned with a bishops miter, he holds a bejeweled crozier (bishops staff), curvilinear robes, long thin hands, and pale delicate faces. Louis is crowned by angels and yet he offers an earthly crown to his brother Robert.
Gold fleurs-de-lis on blue represent link to the French royal family.
Claus Sluter, portal, Chartreuse de Champmol, Dijon, 1385-1393, meant to be a mausoleum.
France was ruled by Charles V. Two brothers Philip the Bold and Jean, Duc de Berry presided over lavish courts which were enriched by ambitious patronage. The sumptuousness of the following works show how removed the courts were from the real world, especially with the current suffering of France and parts of Europe ravaged from the Hundred Years War.
Door jamb sculptures were living people, not OT kings and queens.
Sluter, Virgin Mary and Christ, central trumeau of portal, Chartreuse de Champol, Dijon, 1385-1393, she is crowned but her composure is mainly maternal.Vierge Doree,Amiens
Claus Sluter, Well of Moses, Chartreuse de Champol, Dijon, begun in 1395, painted stone, Portrait-like with the s