Precursors of the Renaissance: Late Medieval Painting 13 th and 14 th century Italian art.

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  • Precursors of the Renaissance: Late Medieval Painting 13th and 14th century Italian art

  • BackgroundTerm Renaissance means rebirth.

    The term Renaissance denotes a revival of interest in ancient Greek and Roman texts and culture.

    Refers to time period between 13th and 16th centuries.

    Started in Italy

  • Main IdeasExploration GlobeIntellectual

    AdaptationClassical to modern

    Art as a BusinessGuildsApprenticeshipsContracts/PatronsSigning of works

  • GuildsAssociations of master craftspeople, apprentices, and tradespeople

    Artist associationGuided internships/apprenticeships

    Became prominent during this time

    Remained in effect until 18th c.

  • ApprenticesArtists learned their trade by undertaking a long period of technical training in shops of master artists-known as an apprenticeship. Started in teens

    Began by doing menial jobs

    Eventually got their own studio

    Females were extremely rare

  • PatronsReligious Orders/Leaders

    Civic Organizations

    Wealthy Individuals

  • Black DeathBubonic Plague in 1340

    Affected art by stimulating more religious themed art and architecture

  • St. Francis- panel from an altarpiece-Berlinghieri

  • Panel from an altarpiece is the earliest known pictorial of St. Francis life.

    Tempera painting on canvas with strong Byzantine influence Frontal--GoldFloating

    Shows detailed scenes from his life.

    St. Francis wears the woolen belted cloak of the FranciscansStigmata.

  • St. Francis (1181-1226)Was son of wealthy merchant, threw off fathers wealth, embraced poverty.

    Started Franciscan Orderhad one strict, simple rule, insisting that his followers live by the work of their own hands or by begging.

    Dressed in simple habit

    Experienced stigmata-second coming of Christ?

  • Baptistery of Pisa Pulpit-Nicola Pisano

  • Composed of carved marble reliefs and ornamentation used for large pulpits.

    Lions support every other column

    Tri-lobed arches carry on Medieval/Romanesque traditions

    Ornate capitals are a Gothic variation of Corinthian capitals

    Arches are round and very Roman in their characteristics.

  • Large rectangular reliefs consist of densely packed/crowded figures.

    Three dimensional movement of the figures with convincing, organic drapery.

  • Madonna Enthroned With Angels and Prophets-Cimabue, 1280-1290

  • Last great painter in Byzantine styleGold backgroundLines of gold in Marys draperyLong, thin proportionFaces

    The elaborate throne has no visible support at the back but seems instead to rise upward. Its not realistically grounded.

    More 3D than Byzantine in space

    Homunculus Jesus

  • Giotto & DuccioBetween 1290 and 1310, Duccio from Siena and Giotto from Florence redefined Western art.

    Duccio and Giotto began to reject Byzantine tradition.

  • These men began the period of transition between Byzantine art and the art of the Renaissance.

    They rediscovered the human form, human emotions, and the natural world. (Precursors of the new revolutionary style)

  • Madonna Enthroned-Giotto, 1310

  • Cimabues apprentice

    Often known as the father of Western art

    Displaced the flat Byzantine style with a style that emphasized the natural worldWeightLight/shadowBelievable sense of space

  • Lingering hints of the Byzantine style: gold background disproportion of Madonna and the other figures

    However she is on a 3-D throne and her body has volume and form.

    The angels surrounding her also have much more natural and realistic features

  • Interior of Arena Chapel-Giotto, 1305-1306

  • The entire interior is made up of fresco paintings.

    Takes its name from the Roman amphitheater (it was constructed near the ruins)

    Built for Enrico Scrovegni, a wealthy Paduan merchant, on a site adjacent to his palace.

    Intended for his private use.

  • CHARACTERISTICS: Rectangular barrel-vaulted hall

    6 narrow windows on southern wall

    One of the most impressive and complete pictorial cycles of Christian Redemption ever rendered

    On 3 levels

  • 38 framed pictures Life of Mary, Life of Christ

    Ceiling is bright blue

    Same blue used throughout paintings to unify the entire chapel

  • Christ Entering Jerusalem, Arena Chapel-Giotto

  • Giotto simplifies the theme, not adding in things that arent essential

    Focus on balance

    3D quality compared to Byzantine

  • Lamentation, Arena Chapel-Giotto

  • Excellent example of Giottos ability to portray emotionHelpless, grief-stricken, anguishedExpect it from figures you cant see

    Influenced by religious plays

    Frescoes ushered in a new style that lasted for 7 centuries

    Revived the naturalistic approach of the Greeks and Romans

  • Backs to us=audience participating, emphasize foreground

    Indicated weight and depth through mastery of light and shade

    Light to dark in drapery

    Set the stage for chiaroscuroUse of dramatic light and dark to create a modeled or exceptionally 3D appearance

    Perspective, sense of space

  • Giottos Kiss of Judas

  • Can you recognize Giottos style?

    Notice the eyes

    Blue of Arena Chapel

  • DuccioFrom Siena, rival city of Florence

    Their patron saint was Mary

    Sienas cathedral directors commissioned Duccio to build a two-sided freestanding altar piece in honor of Mary

    Worked on this altar piece for 3 yrs

  • Virgin & Child Enthroned with Saints-Duccio

  • Also known as MaestaCentral and largest portion of altar piece

    Mary is enthroned as the Queen of Heaven, while dressed in a blue robe she towers above the surrounding saints, angels, and apostles.

    The gold background= splendor of Heaven.

    The precious materials are also meant to reinforce the works timeless and spiritual message.

  • Christ Entering Jerusalem-Duccio

  • on the back of the Maesta

    the architecture of this picture frames the crowd make it more understandable than similar Byzantine portrayals.

    diagonal movement into the depths of the painting, and this movement is created by walls on either side of the road leading into the city.

    Other than these characteristics it is very Byzantine in its style and characteristics.

  • Kiss of Judas (Betrayal of Jesus), Sienna Cathedral-Duccio

  • It shows a dramatic sequence of events triggered by Judas treacherous kiss.

    The figures in this piece show a wide range of emotionthe terrified apostles fleeenraged Peter cuts of the ear of the high priests servant Jesus, dress in a purple robe symbolizing royalty, stays calm even amidst this chaotic scene.

  • The robe of these figures also display a naturalistic approach

    Unlike the flat erect Byzantine forms Duccios forms seem animated and 3-dimensional

    Achieved this by depicting the fall of light and shade across the figure.

  • Palazzo Publico,Siena Italy

  • Gothic city hall that was built to show evidence of their confidence and stable government.

    The building also contains a 330 foot campanile which was used as a lookout tower for the city.

    The annual horserace (an event that Siena is famous for) is run every year in the courtyard of this area.

  • Great artist Ambrogio Lorezetti was hired to create three paintings of good and bad government to hang inside 13 H 27W

    Lorenzettis huge paintings were the first secular paintings in Italy since Christianity became the official religion

  • Peaceful City, Siena-Ambrogio Lorenzetti

  • Shows a realistic picture of Sienna at the time.

    The benefits of good government: prosperous merchants sell goods from well-stocked shopsattentive students listen to knowledgeable teachers joyous maidens dance to the beat of a tambourine.

    The people are in high fashion.

    They are all celebrating the joys of a good government.

  • Peaceful Country, Sienna-Ambrogio Lorenzetti

  • Contented peasants working in terraced vineyards, bountiful fields that lead to undisturbed, distant hill sides

    upper left corner there is an allegorical figure that holds a scroll with an inscription promising safety to all who live under the rule of law.

    she provides a pictorial message showing a criminal swinging from the rope. He has been executed for violating the laws of the good government.

  • Allegory of Bad GovernmentOnly details left, much damaged

    Inhabited by fear, poverty, corruption, disease, isolation

    "Because each seeks only his own good, in this city, Justice is subjected to Tyranny; wherefore along this road nobody passes without fearing for his life, since there are robberies outside and inside the city gates."

  • Annunciation-Simone Martini

  • International Gothic--brilliant colors, lavish costumes, and exquisite ornamental designBack completely in gold leaf

    Simone Martini great artist of time, apprentice to Duccio

    Angel Gabriel comes to tell Mary she will have Gods son, presents her with lilies to show innocence

    Mary is stunned, shy, closing Bible

    Artists began to study the forms of classical antiquity by observing Roman ruins.

    Gradually the ideal human character and form was pursued during the Renaissance.

    mixing paintspreparing pigments and painting surfacesoccasionally worked on less important border areas or painted the minor figures of a masters composition.

    *Big influence on art at this time

    (remember the number 3 was important). Nude heroic statue of Hercules that symbolized Christian bravery and strength

    *Byzantine Empire ended in 1453 when the Ottoman Turks took overtwo of the angels even offer Mary flowers (lilies and roses) showing a revival of the natural world.

    *Giotto may have been the architect as well because the design fits the inside so well.

    **

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