Precursors of the Renaissance: Late Medieval Painting 13 th and 14 th century Italian art.
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Precursors of the Renaissance: Late Medieval Painting 13th and 14th century Italian art
BackgroundTerm Renaissance means rebirth.
The term Renaissance denotes a revival of interest in ancient Greek and Roman texts and culture.
Refers to time period between 13th and 16th centuries.
Started in Italy
Main IdeasExploration GlobeIntellectual
AdaptationClassical to modern
Art as a BusinessGuildsApprenticeshipsContracts/PatronsSigning of works
GuildsAssociations of master craftspeople, apprentices, and tradespeople
Artist associationGuided internships/apprenticeships
Became prominent during this time
Remained in effect until 18th c.
ApprenticesArtists learned their trade by undertaking a long period of technical training in shops of master artists-known as an apprenticeship. Started in teens
Began by doing menial jobs
Eventually got their own studio
Females were extremely rare
Black DeathBubonic Plague in 1340
Affected art by stimulating more religious themed art and architecture
St. Francis- panel from an altarpiece-Berlinghieri
Panel from an altarpiece is the earliest known pictorial of St. Francis life.
Tempera painting on canvas with strong Byzantine influence Frontal--GoldFloating
Shows detailed scenes from his life.
St. Francis wears the woolen belted cloak of the FranciscansStigmata.
St. Francis (1181-1226)Was son of wealthy merchant, threw off fathers wealth, embraced poverty.
Started Franciscan Orderhad one strict, simple rule, insisting that his followers live by the work of their own hands or by begging.
Dressed in simple habit
Experienced stigmata-second coming of Christ?
Baptistery of Pisa Pulpit-Nicola Pisano
Composed of carved marble reliefs and ornamentation used for large pulpits.
Lions support every other column
Tri-lobed arches carry on Medieval/Romanesque traditions
Ornate capitals are a Gothic variation of Corinthian capitals
Arches are round and very Roman in their characteristics.
Large rectangular reliefs consist of densely packed/crowded figures.
Three dimensional movement of the figures with convincing, organic drapery.
Madonna Enthroned With Angels and Prophets-Cimabue, 1280-1290
Last great painter in Byzantine styleGold backgroundLines of gold in Marys draperyLong, thin proportionFaces
The elaborate throne has no visible support at the back but seems instead to rise upward. Its not realistically grounded.
More 3D than Byzantine in space
Giotto & DuccioBetween 1290 and 1310, Duccio from Siena and Giotto from Florence redefined Western art.
Duccio and Giotto began to reject Byzantine tradition.
These men began the period of transition between Byzantine art and the art of the Renaissance.
They rediscovered the human form, human emotions, and the natural world. (Precursors of the new revolutionary style)
Madonna Enthroned-Giotto, 1310
Often known as the father of Western art
Displaced the flat Byzantine style with a style that emphasized the natural worldWeightLight/shadowBelievable sense of space
Lingering hints of the Byzantine style: gold background disproportion of Madonna and the other figures
However she is on a 3-D throne and her body has volume and form.
The angels surrounding her also have much more natural and realistic features
Interior of Arena Chapel-Giotto, 1305-1306
The entire interior is made up of fresco paintings.
Takes its name from the Roman amphitheater (it was constructed near the ruins)
Built for Enrico Scrovegni, a wealthy Paduan merchant, on a site adjacent to his palace.
Intended for his private use.
CHARACTERISTICS: Rectangular barrel-vaulted hall
6 narrow windows on southern wall
One of the most impressive and complete pictorial cycles of Christian Redemption ever rendered
On 3 levels
38 framed pictures Life of Mary, Life of Christ
Ceiling is bright blue
Same blue used throughout paintings to unify the entire chapel
Christ Entering Jerusalem, Arena Chapel-Giotto
Giotto simplifies the theme, not adding in things that arent essential
Focus on balance
3D quality compared to Byzantine
Lamentation, Arena Chapel-Giotto
Excellent example of Giottos ability to portray emotionHelpless, grief-stricken, anguishedExpect it from figures you cant see
Influenced by religious plays
Frescoes ushered in a new style that lasted for 7 centuries
Revived the naturalistic approach of the Greeks and Romans
Backs to us=audience participating, emphasize foreground
Indicated weight and depth through mastery of light and shade
Light to dark in drapery
Set the stage for chiaroscuroUse of dramatic light and dark to create a modeled or exceptionally 3D appearance
Perspective, sense of space
Giottos Kiss of Judas
Can you recognize Giottos style?
Notice the eyes
Blue of Arena Chapel
DuccioFrom Siena, rival city of Florence
Their patron saint was Mary
Sienas cathedral directors commissioned Duccio to build a two-sided freestanding altar piece in honor of Mary
Worked on this altar piece for 3 yrs
Virgin & Child Enthroned with Saints-Duccio
Also known as MaestaCentral and largest portion of altar piece
Mary is enthroned as the Queen of Heaven, while dressed in a blue robe she towers above the surrounding saints, angels, and apostles.
The gold background= splendor of Heaven.
The precious materials are also meant to reinforce the works timeless and spiritual message.
Christ Entering Jerusalem-Duccio
on the back of the Maesta
the architecture of this picture frames the crowd make it more understandable than similar Byzantine portrayals.
diagonal movement into the depths of the painting, and this movement is created by walls on either side of the road leading into the city.
Other than these characteristics it is very Byzantine in its style and characteristics.
Kiss of Judas (Betrayal of Jesus), Sienna Cathedral-Duccio
It shows a dramatic sequence of events triggered by Judas treacherous kiss.
The figures in this piece show a wide range of emotionthe terrified apostles fleeenraged Peter cuts of the ear of the high priests servant Jesus, dress in a purple robe symbolizing royalty, stays calm even amidst this chaotic scene.
The robe of these figures also display a naturalistic approach
Unlike the flat erect Byzantine forms Duccios forms seem animated and 3-dimensional
Achieved this by depicting the fall of light and shade across the figure.
Palazzo Publico,Siena Italy
Gothic city hall that was built to show evidence of their confidence and stable government.
The building also contains a 330 foot campanile which was used as a lookout tower for the city.
The annual horserace (an event that Siena is famous for) is run every year in the courtyard of this area.
Great artist Ambrogio Lorezetti was hired to create three paintings of good and bad government to hang inside 13 H 27W
Lorenzettis huge paintings were the first secular paintings in Italy since Christianity became the official religion
Peaceful City, Siena-Ambrogio Lorenzetti
Shows a realistic picture of Sienna at the time.
The benefits of good government: prosperous merchants sell goods from well-stocked shopsattentive students listen to knowledgeable teachers joyous maidens dance to the beat of a tambourine.
The people are in high fashion.
They are all celebrating the joys of a good government.
Peaceful Country, Sienna-Ambrogio Lorenzetti
Contented peasants working in terraced vineyards, bountiful fields that lead to undisturbed, distant hill sides
upper left corner there is an allegorical figure that holds a scroll with an inscription promising safety to all who live under the rule of law.
she provides a pictorial message showing a criminal swinging from the rope. He has been executed for violating the laws of the good government.
Allegory of Bad GovernmentOnly details left, much damaged
Inhabited by fear, poverty, corruption, disease, isolation
"Because each seeks only his own good, in this city, Justice is subjected to Tyranny; wherefore along this road nobody passes without fearing for his life, since there are robberies outside and inside the city gates."
International Gothic--brilliant colors, lavish costumes, and exquisite ornamental designBack completely in gold leaf
Simone Martini great artist of time, apprentice to Duccio
Angel Gabriel comes to tell Mary she will have Gods son, presents her with lilies to show innocence
Mary is stunned, shy, closing Bible
Artists began to study the forms of classical antiquity by observing Roman ruins.
Gradually the ideal human character and form was pursued during the Renaissance.
mixing paintspreparing pigments and painting surfacesoccasionally worked on less important border areas or painted the minor figures of a masters composition.
*Big influence on art at this time
(remember the number 3 was important). Nude heroic statue of Hercules that symbolized Christian bravery and strength
*Byzantine Empire ended in 1453 when the Ottoman Turks took overtwo of the angels even offer Mary flowers (lilies and roses) showing a revival of the natural world.
*Giotto may have been the architect as well because the design fits the inside so well.