Precursors of the Renaissance: Late Medieval Painting 13 th and 14 th century Italian art

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<ul><li><p>Precursors of the Renaissance: Late Medieval Painting 13th and 14th century Italian art</p></li><li><p>BackgroundTerm Renaissance means rebirth. </p><p>The term Renaissance denotes a revival of interest in ancient Greek and Roman texts and culture. </p><p>Refers to time period between 13th and 16th centuries.</p><p>Started in Italy</p></li><li><p>Main IdeasExploration GlobeIntellectual</p><p>AdaptationClassical to modern</p><p>Art as a BusinessGuildsApprenticeshipsContracts/PatronsSigning of works</p></li><li><p>GuildsAssociations of master craftspeople, apprentices, and tradespeople</p><p>Artist associationGuided internships/apprenticeships</p><p>Became prominent during this time</p><p>Remained in effect until 18th c.</p></li><li><p>ApprenticesArtists learned their trade by undertaking a long period of technical training in shops of master artists-known as an apprenticeship. Started in teens</p><p>Began by doing menial jobs </p><p>Eventually got their own studio</p><p>Females were extremely rare</p></li><li><p>PatronsReligious Orders/Leaders</p><p>Civic Organizations</p><p>Wealthy Individuals</p></li><li><p>Black DeathBubonic Plague in 1340</p><p>Affected art by stimulating more religious themed art and architecture</p></li><li><p>St. Francis- panel from an altarpiece-Berlinghieri</p></li><li><p>Panel from an altarpiece is the earliest known pictorial of St. Francis life. </p><p>Tempera painting on canvas with strong Byzantine influence Frontal--GoldFloating</p><p>Shows detailed scenes from his life. </p><p>St. Francis wears the woolen belted cloak of the FranciscansStigmata. </p></li><li><p> St. Francis (1181-1226)Was son of wealthy merchant, threw off fathers wealth, embraced poverty.</p><p>Started Franciscan Orderhad one strict, simple rule, insisting that his followers live by the work of their own hands or by begging. </p><p>Dressed in simple habit</p><p>Experienced stigmata-second coming of Christ?</p></li><li><p>Baptistery of Pisa Pulpit-Nicola Pisano</p></li><li><p>Composed of carved marble reliefs and ornamentation used for large pulpits. </p><p>Lions support every other column</p><p> Tri-lobed arches carry on Medieval/Romanesque traditions</p><p>Ornate capitals are a Gothic variation of Corinthian capitals </p><p>Arches are round and very Roman in their characteristics. </p></li><li><p>Large rectangular reliefs consist of densely packed/crowded figures. </p><p>Three dimensional movement of the figures with convincing, organic drapery.</p></li><li><p>Madonna Enthroned With Angels and Prophets-Cimabue, 1280-1290</p></li><li><p>Last great painter in Byzantine styleGold backgroundLines of gold in Marys draperyLong, thin proportionFaces</p><p>The elaborate throne has no visible support at the back but seems instead to rise upward. Its not realistically grounded. </p><p>More 3D than Byzantine in space</p><p>Homunculus Jesus</p></li><li><p>Giotto &amp; DuccioBetween 1290 and 1310, Duccio from Siena and Giotto from Florence redefined Western art.</p><p>Duccio and Giotto began to reject Byzantine tradition. </p></li><li><p>These men began the period of transition between Byzantine art and the art of the Renaissance.</p><p>They rediscovered the human form, human emotions, and the natural world. (Precursors of the new revolutionary style)</p></li><li><p>Madonna Enthroned-Giotto, 1310</p></li><li><p>Cimabues apprentice</p><p>Often known as the father of Western art</p><p>Displaced the flat Byzantine style with a style that emphasized the natural worldWeightLight/shadowBelievable sense of space</p></li><li><p>Lingering hints of the Byzantine style: gold background disproportion of Madonna and the other figures</p><p>However she is on a 3-D throne and her body has volume and form. </p><p>The angels surrounding her also have much more natural and realistic features</p></li><li><p>Interior of Arena Chapel-Giotto, 1305-1306</p></li><li><p>The entire interior is made up of fresco paintings. </p><p>Takes its name from the Roman amphitheater (it was constructed near the ruins) </p><p>Built for Enrico Scrovegni, a wealthy Paduan merchant, on a site adjacent to his palace. </p><p>Intended for his private use.</p></li><li><p>CHARACTERISTICS: Rectangular barrel-vaulted hall</p><p>6 narrow windows on southern wall</p><p>One of the most impressive and complete pictorial cycles of Christian Redemption ever rendered </p><p>On 3 levels </p></li><li><p>38 framed pictures Life of Mary, Life of Christ</p><p>Ceiling is bright blue</p><p>Same blue used throughout paintings to unify the entire chapel</p></li><li><p>Christ Entering Jerusalem, Arena Chapel-Giotto</p></li><li><p>Giotto simplifies the theme, not adding in things that arent essential</p><p>Focus on balance</p><p>3D quality compared to Byzantine</p></li><li><p>Lamentation, Arena Chapel-Giotto</p></li><li><p>Excellent example of Giottos ability to portray emotionHelpless, grief-stricken, anguishedExpect it from figures you cant see</p><p>Influenced by religious plays</p><p>Frescoes ushered in a new style that lasted for 7 centuries</p><p>Revived the naturalistic approach of the Greeks and Romans</p></li><li><p>Backs to us=audience participating, emphasize foreground</p><p>Indicated weight and depth through mastery of light and shade</p><p>Light to dark in drapery</p><p>Set the stage for chiaroscuroUse of dramatic light and dark to create a modeled or exceptionally 3D appearance</p><p>Perspective, sense of space</p></li><li><p>Giottos Kiss of Judas</p></li><li><p>Can you recognize Giottos style?</p><p>Notice the eyes</p><p>Blue of Arena Chapel</p></li><li><p>DuccioFrom Siena, rival city of Florence</p><p>Their patron saint was Mary</p><p>Sienas cathedral directors commissioned Duccio to build a two-sided freestanding altar piece in honor of Mary</p><p>Worked on this altar piece for 3 yrs</p></li><li><p>Virgin &amp; Child Enthroned with Saints-Duccio</p></li><li><p>Also known as MaestaCentral and largest portion of altar piece</p><p>Mary is enthroned as the Queen of Heaven, while dressed in a blue robe she towers above the surrounding saints, angels, and apostles. </p><p>The gold background= splendor of Heaven. </p><p>The precious materials are also meant to reinforce the works timeless and spiritual message.</p></li><li><p>Christ Entering Jerusalem-Duccio</p></li><li><p>on the back of the Maesta</p><p> the architecture of this picture frames the crowd make it more understandable than similar Byzantine portrayals. </p><p>diagonal movement into the depths of the painting, and this movement is created by walls on either side of the road leading into the city. </p><p>Other than these characteristics it is very Byzantine in its style and characteristics.</p></li><li><p>Kiss of Judas (Betrayal of Jesus), Sienna Cathedral-Duccio</p></li><li><p>It shows a dramatic sequence of events triggered by Judas treacherous kiss. </p><p>The figures in this piece show a wide range of emotionthe terrified apostles fleeenraged Peter cuts of the ear of the high priests servant Jesus, dress in a purple robe symbolizing royalty, stays calm even amidst this chaotic scene. </p></li><li><p>The robe of these figures also display a naturalistic approach</p><p>Unlike the flat erect Byzantine forms Duccios forms seem animated and 3-dimensional</p><p>Achieved this by depicting the fall of light and shade across the figure.</p></li><li><p>Palazzo Publico,Siena Italy</p></li><li><p>Gothic city hall that was built to show evidence of their confidence and stable government. </p><p>The building also contains a 330 foot campanile which was used as a lookout tower for the city. </p><p>The annual horserace (an event that Siena is famous for) is run every year in the courtyard of this area. </p></li><li><p>Great artist Ambrogio Lorezetti was hired to create three paintings of good and bad government to hang inside 13 H 27W</p><p>Lorenzettis huge paintings were the first secular paintings in Italy since Christianity became the official religion </p></li><li><p>Peaceful City, Siena-Ambrogio Lorenzetti</p></li><li><p>Shows a realistic picture of Sienna at the time. </p><p>The benefits of good government: prosperous merchants sell goods from well-stocked shopsattentive students listen to knowledgeable teachers joyous maidens dance to the beat of a tambourine.</p><p> The people are in high fashion. </p><p>They are all celebrating the joys of a good government.</p></li><li><p>Peaceful Country, Sienna-Ambrogio Lorenzetti</p></li><li><p>Contented peasants working in terraced vineyards, bountiful fields that lead to undisturbed, distant hill sides</p><p>upper left corner there is an allegorical figure that holds a scroll with an inscription promising safety to all who live under the rule of law. </p><p>she provides a pictorial message showing a criminal swinging from the rope. He has been executed for violating the laws of the good government. </p></li><li><p>Allegory of Bad GovernmentOnly details left, much damaged</p><p>Inhabited by fear, poverty, corruption, disease, isolation</p><p>"Because each seeks only his own good, in this city, Justice is subjected to Tyranny; wherefore along this road nobody passes without fearing for his life, since there are robberies outside and inside the city gates." </p></li><li><p>Annunciation-Simone Martini</p></li><li><p>International Gothic--brilliant colors, lavish costumes, and exquisite ornamental designBack completely in gold leaf</p><p>Simone Martini great artist of time, apprentice to Duccio</p><p>Angel Gabriel comes to tell Mary she will have Gods son, presents her with lilies to show innocence</p><p>Mary is stunned, shy, closing Bible</p><p>Artists began to study the forms of classical antiquity by observing Roman ruins. </p><p>Gradually the ideal human character and form was pursued during the Renaissance.</p><p>mixing paintspreparing pigments and painting surfacesoccasionally worked on less important border areas or painted the minor figures of a masters composition. </p><p>*Big influence on art at this time</p><p>(remember the number 3 was important). Nude heroic statue of Hercules that symbolized Christian bravery and strength</p><p>*Byzantine Empire ended in 1453 when the Ottoman Turks took overtwo of the angels even offer Mary flowers (lilies and roses) showing a revival of the natural world.</p><p>*Giotto may have been the architect as well because the design fits the inside so well. </p><p>**</p></li></ul>