power writing in social studies a formula for persuasive and expository writing
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- Power Writing in Social Studies A Formula for Persuasive and Expository Writing
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- Why do students have a hard time writing? What do I say in the introduction? How do I start? How do I word it? When do I say it? What do I say next? How do I develop my ideas? What do I say in the introduction? How do I start? How do I word it? When do I say it? What do I say next? How do I develop my ideas? What can I use as proof? How do I get from one idea to the next? How do I write the concluding paragraph? What do I say at the end?
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- The result of these obstacles These questions tend to paralyze writers.
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- Students only have 45 minutes to write their essay. They need a systematic way to approach writing an essay that is clear and purposeful.
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- Teacher Evaluations- What teachers typically say about their students writing Topic sentences have more than one focus Body paragraphs are a series of general statements without proof Body paragraphs repeat the same ideas over and over Concluding sentences repeat topic sentence Concluding paragraph repeats essay
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- Steps- Teach them to Dance with their Pens Why cant we teach a few basic STEPS IN WRITING that will reliably move them through an expository or persuasive essay?
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- The Power Writing Formula Body Paragraphs
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- 4 Easy Steps Topic Sentence General Statement Proof Commentary
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- Topic Sentence States the SINGLE POINT that the writer will prove in a body paragraph
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- General Statement States the ONE WAY that the writer will prove that the topic sentence is true
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- Proof F= FACTS I= INCIDENTS R=REASONS E=EXAMPLES S= STATISTICS=NUMBERS
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- Commentary OPINION about the proof The commentary tells the readers what to think about the proof
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- Body Paragraph Pattern Topic sentence General statement Proof Commentary General statement Proof Commentary Concluding sentence
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- Topic Sentence Topic Sentence: The term for the President of the United States should be one six-year term. Notice the single focus.
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- General Statement In fact, or As a matter of fact, the current system forces the President to spend at least two years of their four year term organizing their re-election campaign instead of implementing positive changes to improve the country. This is one way to prove that the topic sentence is true.
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- Proof For example, For instance, When President Clinton was running for his second term, he spent more time on the campaign trail than he did in the White House thus, he was not fulfilling his presidential responsibilities.
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- Commentary This illustrates, This shows how the current policy of the two four-year term limit for president actually forces the president to abandon his/her duties and concentrate on re- election. If the system called for one six-year term, the president would not be concentrating on getting re-elected. Notice how the writer shapes the readers opinion of the example.
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- Second General Statement Further. Furthermore, Moreover, Also, Additionally, Likewise, a one six-year term policy for the President would allow the president more time to implement his/her ideas for improving the country. A four year term is not enough time to implement real change. This statement introduces a second way to prove that the topic sentence is true.
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- Proof Consider this incident: President Carter was only elected for one term and much of his term was spent campaigning for re- election. Had he had one six-year term, he could have concentrated all of his efforts on important issues at the time, like the energy crises and the hostage crises in Iran, instead of campaigning for reelection.
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- Commentary What an inefficient system under which we live. Imagine how many changes Carter could have implemented during his one six- year term that might have solved important issues instead of worrying about politics and campaigning. Literally, a one six-year term could actually save lives, time, and money. Shape the readers opinion about the proof. Make the reader see it your way.
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- Concluding Sentence Clearly, Conclusively, A one six-year term limit for President would be better for the country as a whole. A concluding sentence is one statement that is true for ALL THE PROOF.
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- Body Paragraph Pattern Topic Sentence General Statement Proof Commentary General Statement Proof Commentary Concluding Sentence
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- Focus The focus of the essay is controlled by the topic sentences and general statements
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- Development of a Power Writing Essay A topic sentence that identifies a single point worth proving Two general statements each identifying one way to prove that the topic sentence is true Proof to back up each general statement Commentary that shapes the writers opinion about the proof A concluding sentence that adds up the proof and distills this thought into one sentence that is true for all the proof
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- Organization of a Power Writing Essay Argument and Support Division and Classification General to Specific
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- Reflection in a Power Writing Essay Commentary requires students to write reflectively drawing inferences and shaping opinion.
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- Transitions in a Power Writing Essay To Introduce General Statements Indeed, In fact, As a matter of fact, ; (semi-colon)
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- Transitions in a Power Writing Essay To Introduce Proof For example, For instance, Consider the following example, Consider this fact,
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- Transitions in Power Writing Essays To Introduce Concluding Sentences Clearly, Conclusively, Certainly, Obviously,
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- State FCAT Writing Rubric 6 Writing is focused and purposeful, reflecting insight into writing situation Organizational pattern provides for a logical progression of ideas; transitional devices give a sense of completeness Support is substantial, specific, relevant, concrete
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- Strategies to Teach Students How to Power Write Paragraph Jumble Cut the sentences into strips and glue them on a sheet of paper to form a single paragraph Topic sentence General statement Proof Commentary General statement Proof Commentary Concluding sentence
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- Strategies Continued Read and Retell Give the students a single Power Writing paragraph. Tell them to read the paragraph over and over again until they feel comfortable enough to turn the paper over and recreate it on the back without taking a peak.
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- Modeling Give students a paragraph written according to the Power Writing Formula. Triple space the paragraph giving the students enough room to write their own using the one you gave them as a model.
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- Incomplete Paragraphs Give students a paragraph that follows the Power Writing Formula but omit certain parts. Tell them to supply the missing parts. For example, give them a paragraph that has no commentary. Their job, then, is to add the commentary.
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- Second Body Paragraph Begin the second body paragraph by glancing back to the previous paragraph and then moving on to the next point. Topic sentence, general statement, proof, commentary, general statement, proof commentary, concluding sentence
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- Body Paragraph #2 Transitional Topic Sentence Not only..but...also Besides., ____________ In addition to., ___________
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- Persuasive Essay Introductory Paragraph Body Paragraph #1 Body Paragraph #2 Rebuttal Paragraph Concluding Paragraph
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- 3 rd Body Paragraph Rebuttal Paragraph Place the paragraph of rebuttal before the concluding paragraph.
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- Rebuttal Paragraph Give information about why there are people who support the opposite view and explain to the reader why they should accept your view
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- Rebuttal Paragraph Those who hold the opposite opinion are mistaken. They assert (clearly and accurately state their positions). However, they are wrong. In fact, (tell your reader why this is a mistake). To be certain, (one clincher statement that will seal the deal).
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- Rebuttal Paragraph Ex. Many people might argue against having a one six- year term limit for president since it has been a long standing tradition, established by George Washington and supported by the 22 nd Amendment to the U.S. Constitution (1951). However, they would be wrong. Just because something has been established over time and never changed, doesnt make it the best practice or policy. This is why we are permitted to amend the Constitution.
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- Never: Attack opponentattack the issues Misrepresent the opposing position Exaggerate and distort the opposing positio
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