political patterns chapter 4 the human mosaic. culture regions political culture regions political...

Download Political Patterns Chapter 4 The Human Mosaic. Culture Regions Political culture regions Political culture regions Political diffusion Political diffusion

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  • Slide 1
  • Political Patterns Chapter 4 The Human Mosaic
  • Slide 2
  • Culture Regions Political culture regions Political culture regions Political diffusion Political diffusion Political ecology Political ecology Politico-cultural integration Politico-cultural integration Political landscapes Political landscapes
  • Slide 3
  • Independent countries Earths surface is divided into some 190 independent countries Earths surface is divided into some 190 independent countries Scores of other provinces and districts enjoy some level of autonomy with being fully independent Scores of other provinces and districts enjoy some level of autonomy with being fully independent The United States occupies about the same amount of territory as Europe, which has 46 independent countries The United States occupies about the same amount of territory as Europe, which has 46 independent countries Australia is politically united Australia is politically united South America has 12 countries South America has 12 countries
  • Slide 4
  • Slide 5
  • Independent countries Africas mainland has 47 independent entities Africas mainland has 47 independent entities Territoriality: the tangible geographical expression of one of the most common human characteristics: to belong to a larger group that controls its own piece of Earth Territoriality: the tangible geographical expression of one of the most common human characteristics: to belong to a larger group that controls its own piece of Earth Some political geographers believe territoriality is instinctive in humans Some political geographers believe territoriality is instinctive in humans Fragmentation of humankind into independent countries is natural and unavoidable Fragmentation of humankind into independent countries is natural and unavoidable It is a product of the animal part of our brain It is a product of the animal part of our brain
  • Slide 6
  • Slide 7
  • Independent countries Territorial imperative Territorial imperative Most political geographers believe territoriality is learned Most political geographers believe territoriality is learned Robert Sack believes it is a cultural strategy using power to control area thereby subjugating inhabitants and acquiring resources Robert Sack believes it is a cultural strategy using power to control area thereby subjugating inhabitants and acquiring resources Warns against uncritical borrowing of concepts from animal behaviorists Warns against uncritical borrowing of concepts from animal behaviorists Precise border marking was a concept unique to Western culture Precise border marking was a concept unique to Western culture Others suggest a recent origin for nationalism of 150 to 500 years ago Others suggest a recent origin for nationalism of 150 to 500 years ago
  • Slide 8
  • Independent countries Whether learned or instinctual, human territoriality is a geographical phenomenon Whether learned or instinctual, human territoriality is a geographical phenomenon The sense of we springs from attachment to region and place The sense of we springs from attachment to region and place
  • Slide 9
  • Distribution of national territory As a rule, the more compact the territory the better As a rule, the more compact the territory the better Theoretically, the most desirable shape for a country is round or hexagonal Theoretically, the most desirable shape for a country is round or hexagonal Allow short communication lines Allow short communication lines Minimizes amount of border to be defended Minimizes amount of border to be defended No country has this ideal degree of compactness No country has this ideal degree of compactness Some countries come closeFrance, Poland, Zaire, and Brazil Some countries come closeFrance, Poland, Zaire, and Brazil
  • Slide 10
  • Slide 11
  • Distribution of national territory Unfavorable territorial distributions can inhibit national cohesiveness Unfavorable territorial distributions can inhibit national cohesiveness Enclave district surround by a country but not ruled by it Enclave district surround by a country but not ruled by it Pene-enclave an intrusive piece of territory with only the smallest of outlets free from the surround country Pene-enclave an intrusive piece of territory with only the smallest of outlets free from the surround country
  • Slide 12
  • Distribution of national territory Exclaves Pieces of national territory separated from the main body of a country by the territory of another Exclaves Pieces of national territory separated from the main body of a country by the territory of another Hard to defend Hard to defend Isolated population may develop separatist feelings Isolated population may develop separatist feelings
  • Slide 13
  • Slide 14
  • A is Armenia A is Armenia C is Iran C is Iran B is Azerbaijan B is Azerbaijan a is Nagomo-Karabakh b is Nakhichevan Autonomous Republic c is Okibair Eskipara enclave d is Sofulu enclave e is Kyarki enclave f is Bashkend enclave
  • Slide 15
  • Distribution of national territory Pakistan as an exclave in 1947 Pakistan as an exclave in 1947 Two parts were separated by 1,000 miles of India territory Two parts were separated by 1,000 miles of India territory West Pakistan had the capital, most of the territory, and hoarded the countrys wealth West Pakistan had the capital, most of the territory, and hoarded the countrys wealth East Pakistan had most the people and resources East Pakistan had most the people and resources Divided in 1973, East Pakistan became Bangladesh Divided in 1973, East Pakistan became Bangladesh
  • Slide 16
  • Slide 17
  • Distribution of national territory Long narrow shoestring countries such as Chile, Gambia, and Norway can be difficult to administer Long narrow shoestring countries such as Chile, Gambia, and Norway can be difficult to administer Island nations such as Indonesia can cause problems transportation, communication Island nations such as Indonesia can cause problems transportation, communication Sea encouraged islanders to develop local allegiances in the former British Islands in the Caribbean Sea encouraged islanders to develop local allegiances in the former British Islands in the Caribbean
  • Slide 18
  • Slide 19
  • Boundaries Until recently many boundaries were not sharp, clearly defined lines, but were zones called marchlands Until recently many boundaries were not sharp, clearly defined lines, but were zones called marchlands Buffer state independent but small and weak country lying between two powerful countries Buffer state independent but small and weak country lying between two powerful countries Mongolialies between Russia and China Mongolialies between Russia and China Nepallies between India and China Nepallies between India and China Satellite state -- a buffer state that falls under the domination of one of its powerful neighbors and loses much of its independence Satellite state -- a buffer state that falls under the domination of one of its powerful neighbors and loses much of its independence
  • Slide 20
  • Boundaries Most modern boundaries are lines rather than zones Most modern boundaries are lines rather than zones Natural boundaries follow some feature of the natural landscape Natural boundaries follow some feature of the natural landscape Ethnographic boundaries based on a culture trait often religion or language Ethnographic boundaries based on a culture trait often religion or language Geometric boundaries regular, often perfectly straight lines drawn without regard for physical or cultural features Geometric boundaries regular, often perfectly straight lines drawn without regard for physical or cultural features
  • Slide 21
  • Niagara Falls Niagara River forms a natural boundary between Canada and the United States Niagara River forms a natural boundary between Canada and the United States This view is from Horseshoe Falls in the province of Ontario towards American Falls in the state of New York This view is from Horseshoe Falls in the province of Ontario towards American Falls in the state of New York
  • Slide 22
  • Niagara Falls Each year, millions of visitors travel across the bridge-border to enjoy the spectacular scenery. Each year, millions of visitors travel across the bridge-border to enjoy the spectacular scenery. Niagara Falls is an important element of Canadas iconography. Niagara Falls is an important element of Canadas iconography.
  • Slide 23
  • Niagara Falls The area became home to many loyalists from the American Revolution/War of Independence and was the site of Upper Canadas first capital. The area became home to many loyalists from the American Revolution/War of Independence and was the site of Upper Canadas first capital. Decisive battles against American forces in the War of 1812 were also fought there Decisive battles against American forces in the War of 1812 were also fought there
  • Slide 24
  • Boundaries Some boundaries are of mixed type Some boundaries are of mixed type Relic boundaries no longer exist as international borders Relic boundaries no longer exist as international borders Often leave behind a trace in local culture Often leave behind a trace in local culture Example of the reunification of Germany where different levels of prosperity still show between east and west Example of the reunification of Germany wher

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