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  • 10/15/2015

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    Ch. 8 Political Parties

    Shannon Stapleton/Reuters

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    8 Learning Objectives

    Identify the functions that political parties perform in American democracy.

    Determine the significance of party identification in America today.

    8.1

    8.2

    Describe how political parties are organized in the United States.

    8.3

    Meaning of Party • Political Parties

    –Team of men [and women] seeking to control governing apparatus by gaining office in a duly constituted election (Downs)

    8.1

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    5 Tasks of the Parties • From Public Opinion

    to Public Policy

    • Parties

    1. pick candidates

    2. run campaigns

    3. give cues to voters (party images)

    • liberal v conservative

    4. articulate policies

    5. coordinate policymaking

    8.1

    Parties, Voters, & Policy: The Downs Model

    • Rational-choice theory

    – Political scientist Anthony Downs’ model • Explains actions of voters /

    politicians weighing costs and benefits of alternatives

    • Most voters are moderate

    – Center of political spectrum

    • Parties seek voter loyalty

    – Position themselves to left & right of center

    8.1

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    FIGURE 8.1 The Downs model: How rational

    parties position themselves near (but not at) the

    center of public opinion

    8.1

    8.1

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    8.1 How do parties maximize their appeal to voters?

    1. Position themselves near political center

    2. Lie about their opponents

    3. Stake out clear positions to the left or right

    4. Make party members sign loyalty oaths

    8.1

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    Party Organization “PO”

    Party in

    Electorate

    “PiE”

    Party in

    Government

    “PiG”

    The Party in the Electorate • No formal membership

    required

    • Party membership is psychological

    – Symbolic images and ideas

    • Citizens think they know what parties stand for

    • Choose parties based on affinity w/ personal preferences

    • More Americans identify as independents

    8.2

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    FIGURE 8.2 Party identification in the

    United States, 1952–2012

    8.2

    Ticket Splitting • Voting for one

    party for one office AND another party for other offices

    –Became the norm

    –94 in LA county  ~70% split ticket

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    8.2 More Americans are identifying as Independents, especially

    1. People over 65

    2. Minorities

    3. Young people

    4. Less-educated citizens

    8.2

    The Party Organization: From Grass Roots to Washington

    • Local Parties

    • 50 State Party Systems

    • National Party Organizations

    8.3

    National

    State

    Local

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    National Chair

    National Committee

    National Convention

    State central committees & state

    conventions

    Congressional district committees

    City and county committees

    Precinct and ward committees

    Activists and volunteers

    Identifiers and voters

    National (3)

    State (2)

    Local (4)

    Local Parties  Once main party organization

     Party machines

    Rewarded voters

    New York & Chicago

     Patronage

     Jobs for voters &

    contributors

     Progressive reforms ended

    this system

     Boss Tweed

    8.3

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    Chicago Mayor Richard J. Daley 8.3

    Walter Bennett/Time & Life Pictures/Getty Images

     No two exactly alike

     Some well-funded, some weak

     Permanent headquarters

     Provide technical services

     Open primaries

     voters are not required to declare

    party affiliation to participate

     Closed primaries

     Registered voters

     Straight-ticket voting

     Single column or random list

    of candidates

    The 50 State Party Systems 8.3

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    The National Party

    Organizations  National convention

     Meets every four years

     Writes party platform

     Formal nomination of

    candidates

     National committee

     Operates between

    conventions

     Led by national chairperson

    8.3

    8.3 What are the functions of the party’s national convention?

    1. Write party platform

    2. Nominate candidate for president

    3. Meet every four years to revise rules

    4. All of the above

    8.3

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    8 Learning Objectives Evaluate how well political parties

    generally do in carrying out their promises.

    8.4

    Differentiate the various party eras in American history.

    8.5

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    Elects party-in-gov't

    Responds to policy views of electorate

    Party Organization “PO”

    Party in

    Electorate

    “PiE”

    Party in

    Government

    “PiG”

    The Party in Government:

    Promises & Policy  Party in power determines

    policy

     Coalitions support parties

     Most presidents fail to

    implement campaign

    promises

     But they do live up to

    some of them

     Party platforms are

    blueprints

    8.4

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    Conservatives

    NDP

    http://www.politifact.com/truth-o-meter/promises/gop-pledge-o-meter/ http://www.politifact.com/truth-o-meter/promises/obameter/

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    8.4 Which of the following is a campaign promise kept by President

    Reagan?

    a. Increase social welfare spending

    b. Increase defense spending

    c. Increase the federal deficit

    d. Increase funding for education

    8.4

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    Party Eras in American History  1796–1824: The First Party System

     1828–1856: Jackson & Democrats

    Versus the Whigs

     1860–1928: The Two Republican Eras

     1932–1964: The New Deal Coalition

     1968–Present: Southern Realignment &

    the Era of Divided Party Government

    8.5

    Table 8.1 Party platforms, 2012 8.5

    continued on next slide

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    Table 8.1 Party platforms, 2012 8.5

    1796-1824: The First Party

    System  Madison warned against factions

     Hamilton & the Federalist

    Party

     Capitalist support, Northeast

     Short-lived

     Ideas of loyal opposition &

    rotation of power new

     Jefferson & the Democratic-

    Republicans

     Agrarian support, South

     Torn by factions

    8.5

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    1828-1856: Jackson &

    Democrats Versus the Whigs

     General Andrew Jackson as leader

    Democratic-Republicans v. Democratic Party

    New coalition in election of 1828  Westerners, Southerners, poor whites

    Broaden suffrage

     Martin Van Buren

     Theory of loyal opposition

    Whig Party

    8.5

    1860-1928: The Two

    Republican Eras  1850s: Slavery dominated politics

     Split both parties

     Republicans rose as anti-slavery party

     Abraham Lincoln & the Civil War

     Second party realignment

     Lasted 60 years

     Democrats controlled the South

     1896: Second Republican era

     Democrats & “free silver”

    8.5

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    1932-1964: The New Deal

    Coalition  Hoover loses to FDR

     FDR promises New Deal

    New coalition formed

     Elements of New Deal coalition

    Urban dwellers

     Labor unions

    Catholics & Jews

     The poor

    Southerners

    African Americans

    8.5

    8.5 The Roosevelt realignment

    The Granger Collection, NYC

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    FIGURE 8.3 Party coalitions today 8.5

    1968-Present: Southern

    Realignment & the Era of

    Divided Party Government

     Nixon’s Southern strategy  Support for states’ rights, law & order, strong military

    posture

     Win Southern Democrats

    8.5

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    FIGURE 8.4 Realignment in the South 8.5

    1968-Present: Southern

    Realignment & the Era of Divided

    Party G

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