Political Geography Chapter 8. Introduction Political geography helps explain the cultural and physical factors that underlie political unrest Political

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<ul><li> Slide 1 </li> <li> Political Geography Chapter 8 </li> <li> Slide 2 </li> <li> Introduction Political geography helps explain the cultural and physical factors that underlie political unrest Political geographers study how people have organized Earths land surface into countries and alliances, the reasons for doing so, and the conflicts that can erupt from the organization </li> <li> Slide 3 </li> <li> Where are States Located? Almost all land on the Earth belongs to a country Not true as recently as 1940s only about 50 countries then Now there are 192 members of the UN State- an area organized into a political unit and ruled by an established gov. that has control over its internal and foreign affairs Occupies a defined territory and has a permanent population </li> <li> Slide 4 </li> <li> continued Sovereignty- independence from control of its internal affairs by other states States are examples of formal regions because the entire territory is ruled by a common gov., laws, military etc. Country and state are synonyms </li> <li> Slide 5 </li> <li> Problems of Defining States Antarctica is the only large landmass on Earth that is not part of a state Argentina, Australia, Chile, France, New Zealand, Norway, and the UK all claim portions of Antarctica The US and Russia do not recognize these claims The Treaty of Antarctica 1959 (1991) says states may establish research stations but may not have a military presence </li> <li> Slide 6 </li> <li> Slide 7 </li> <li> continued There is some disagreement about the number of sovereign states around the world Korea, China, and Western Sahara (Sahrawi Republic) are examples of places that test the definition of state </li> <li> Slide 8 </li> <li> Korea: One State or Two? After Japan was defeated in WWII, Korea was divided into two occupation zones by the US and Russia Division was made at 38 degrees N. Latitude N. Korea invaded South Korea in 1950 After 3 years, a cease- fire was agreed upon near the 38 th parallel </li> <li> Slide 9 </li> <li> continued Both gov. are committed to reunification In 2000 they agreed to exchange visits of families separated for more than 50 years and for increased economic cooperation Progress slowed by N. Koreas decision to build nuclear weapons even though the country cant provide its citizens with food, electricity, etc. Both countries were admitted into the UN in 1992 </li> <li> Slide 10 </li> <li> China and Taiwan: One State or Two? In 1949 the ruling gov. of China lost a civil war and fled to the island of Taiwan They claimed to still be the rightful gov. of China and that they were waiting for the defeat of the communists so they could return to the mainland Communist China claimed Taiwan and vice versa They agreed there was only 1 states, but not about who ruled it </li> <li> Slide 11 </li> <li> continued In 1999, Taiwan decided to claim itself a separate sovereign state In the 1950s and 1960s the US did not recognize communist China as a country Not until 1971 did the US recognize communist Chinathey were awarded the UN seat formerly held by the Taiwanese gov. Taiwan is now the most populous country not in the UN </li> <li> Slide 12 </li> <li> Western Sahara (Sahrawi Republic) Most African countries recognize as a sovereign state Morocco does not They claim the territory and built a 3,000 kilometer wall around it to keep out rebels The territory was controlled by Spain until 1976 when they withdrew An independent state was declared, but Morocco and Mauritania annexed the Northern and Southern portions </li> <li> Slide 13 </li> <li> continued After 3 years, Mauritania withdrew and Morocco claimed the entire territory Today Morocco controls most of the territory However, there is a gov. group that operates in the sparsely populated deserts (esp. the 1/5 of territory outside the wall) A cease-fire was signed in 1991 and a UN peacekeeping force upholds it While all of this is going on, Spain controls 2 cities in Moroccothe were annexed into Spain 500 years ago and the combined 140,000 residents favor remaining part of Spain </li> <li> Slide 14 </li> <li> Varying Size of States Largest Russia= 6.6 million sq. miles 11% of total land area China, Canada, United States, Brazil, and Australia are the only other states of more than 2.9 million sq. miles Microstates- states with very small land areas Smallest is Monaco=0.6 square miles Many microstates are small islands </li> <li> Slide 15 </li> <li> Development of the State Concept Relatively recent concept Before the 1800s Earth was organized in other ways City-states, empires, and tribes </li> <li> Slide 16 </li> <li> Ancient States The first states to develop in the Fertile Crescent (Mesopotamia) were city- states A sovereign state that compromises a town and the surrounding countryside City was walled for protection and surrounding countryside was used for agriculture </li> <li> Slide 17 </li> <li> continued Sometimes one city-state would assert dominance in the area and create an empire Ex. Sumerians, Assyrians, and Babylonians About the same time the Egyptians were forming an Empire along the Nile River Valley </li> <li> Slide 18 </li> <li> Early European States Roman Empire controlled most of Europe, North Africa, and SW Asia Spanned from England in the North to Egypt in the South and from Spain in the West to Iran in the East After the fall of the Empire, Europe was broken up into large estates owned by Kings, Dukes, etc. They fought each other and some consolidated lands into Kingdoms </li> <li> Slide 19 </li> <li> continued Around 1100, powerful Kings began to emerge as they consolidated large estates England, France, and Spain Germany and Italy however were not consolidated until the 1800s </li> <li> Slide 20 </li> <li> Colonies Def.- a territory that is legally tied to a sovereign state rather than being completely independent Usually sparsely populated before the colony is established Colonialism- the effort by one country to establish settlements and impose its political, economic, and cultural principles on a territory </li> <li> Slide 21 </li> <li> continued European states created colonies for three reasons 1. To promote Christianity 2. To gain valuable resources 3. To show their relative power GOD, GOLD, and GLORY </li> <li> Slide 22 </li> <li> continued Europeans first started colonizing in the late 1400sAmericas Most of those colonies declared independence by 1824 and Europe turned to Africa and Asia Imperialism- control of territory already occupied and organized by an indigenous society </li> <li> Slide 23 </li> <li> continued UK created largest colonial empire sun never set on British empire France also had a large empire- colonies concentrated in West Africa and SE Asia </li> <li> Slide 24 </li> <li> Slide 25 </li> <li> continued France attempted to assimilate its colonies into French culture and educate an elite group to provide local leadership After independence most French colonies remained close to France The British created different gov. policies in each of its colonies Allowed local inhabitants to maintain their diverse cultures and local customs British colonies made peaceful transitions to independence in most cases </li> <li> Slide 26 </li> <li> concluded Most African and Asian colonies became independent after WWII Only a handful of colonies still exist Most are islands in the Pacific or Caribbean Most populous is Puerto Rico </li> <li> Slide 27 </li> <li> Why Do Boundaries Cause Problems? Boundary- an invisible line marking the extent of a states territory Can be natural physical features or cultural features such as religion and language Boundary locations often generate conflict because the lines are the only place two neighboring countries must have physical contact </li> <li> Slide 28 </li> <li> Shapes of States Shape of a state controls the length of its boundaries with other states Shape also can influence the ease or difficulty of internal administration and can affect social unity There are 5 basic shapes: Compact Prorupted Elongated Fragmented Perforated </li> <li> Slide 29 </li> <li> Compact States: Efficient Def.- state where the distance from the center to any boundary does not vary significantly Ideal compact state would be a circle with the capital in the center Allows for good communications from all regions Exs Burundi, Kenya, Uganda </li> <li> Slide 30 </li> <li> Prorupted States: Access or Disruption Def. an otherwise compact state with a large projecting extension Proruptions are created for 2 reasons 1. To provide a state with access to a resource such as water (Congo stretches to Atlantic Ocean) (why Cabinda is separated from the rest of Angola) 2. To separate two states that would otherwise share a border (Afghanistan separates Russia from Pakistan) </li> <li> Slide 31 </li> <li> Slide 32 </li> <li> Slide 33 </li> <li> Elongated States: Potential Isolation Def.- states with a long narrow shape Only a handful of these Ex. Chile over 2500 miles long, but only 90 miles wide Italy is a less extreme example 700 by 120 miles Gambia is an elongated state on an East- West orientation (300 miles wide by15 miles long) by that is completely surrounded by Senegal </li> <li> Slide 34 </li> <li> continued May suffer from poor internal communication and some regions may be isolated from the capital which is usually near the center </li> <li> Slide 35 </li> <li> Slide 36 </li> <li> Fragmented States: Problematic Def.- state with several discontinuous pieces of territory Technically, any state that has offshore islands is considered fragmented fragmentation is particularly significant for some states 2 types: 1. Areas separated by water 2. Areas separated by an intervening state </li> <li> Slide 37 </li> <li> continued Indonesia is most extreme fragmented state 13,677 islands spread over 3,000 miles in the Indian Ocean 80% of pop. lives on the two islands of Java and Sumatra Fragmentation hinders communication and makes integration of people living on remote islands nearly impossible Indonesian gov. encourages migration from major pop. centers to more remote areas to encourage national integration </li> <li> Slide 38 </li> <li> Slide 39 </li> <li> Slide 40 </li> <li> continued The US, Russia, Angola, and Bangladesh are examples of countries with territory separated by other states Kaliningrad is separated from the rest of Russia by 250 miles Important to Russia because it gives them access to the Baltic sea The Tin Bigha corridor of India divides Bangladesh </li> <li> Slide 41 </li> <li> Slide 42 </li> <li> continued Panama was a fragmented state while the US controlled the canal and the surrounding canal zone Now that the US has returned control of the canal, Panama is now a elongated state </li> <li> Slide 43 </li> <li> Perforated States: South Africa Def.- a state that completely surrounds another one South Africa is a great example It completely surrounds Lesotho Lesotho dependent upon S. Africa for import and export of goods </li> <li> Slide 44 </li> <li> Slide 45 </li> <li> Can You Identify Each Type of State? </li> <li> Slide 46 </li> <li> Landlocked States Landlocked states- a state that lacks a direct outlet to the sea because it is completely surrounded by several other countries 14 out of the 54 countries in Africa are landlocked Remnant of European colonialism </li> <li> Slide 47 </li> <li> continued Access to a seaport is critical because it facilitates international trade Bulky goods are usually transported by ship Landlocked states are at the mercy of other states for the use of their seaports </li> <li> Slide 48 </li> <li> Types of Boundaries Historically, frontiers separated states -a zone where no state exercises complete political control Frontiers are tangible geographic areas Boundaries are thin, invisible, and imagined lines Boundaries have replaced frontiers almost everywhere on Earth </li> <li> Slide 49 </li> <li> continued Antarctica and the Arabian Peninsula are the only places that still have frontiers Saudi Arabia is separated from Qatar, UAE, Oman, and Yemen by frontiers </li> <li> Slide 50 </li> <li> continued Boundaries can be physical or cultural Physical boundaries can be seen on a map and on the ground Neither type necessarily better than others Best boundaries are those that all affected states agree upon </li> <li> Slide 51 </li> <li> Mountain Boundaries Serve as effective boundaries when they are difficult to cross Also pretty permanent Argentina and Chile are separated by the crest of the Andes Mountains They have had disagreements about where exactly that crest lies </li> <li> Slide 52 </li> <li> Desert Boundaries Deserts are hard to cross and sparsely inhabited Type of boundary common in Africa and Asia Sahara desert separates Libya, Algeria, and Egypt from their southern neighbors Mauritania, Mali, Niger, Chad and the Sudan </li> <li> Slide 53 </li> <li> Water Boundaries Rivers, lakes, and oceans are often used to mark boundaries Very common in East Africa Ex. Boundary separating Kenya, Tanzania, and Uganda runs through Lake Victoria Boundaries are typically in the middle of the water, but not always Water makes attack from neighbors more difficult because of troop transport </li> <li> Slide 54 </li> <li> continued Water boundaries can cause some difficulties Position of water changes over time Ex. Rio Grande along the US Mexico border Ocean boundaries can also be problematic Most states claim the boundary is not at the coastline, but out at sea Done for defense and resources The Law of the Sea (1983), signed by 117 countries, recognizes borders at 12 nautical miles with exclusive fishing rights to 200 nautical miles </li> <li> Slide 55 </li> <li> Cultural Boundaries A nation-state exists when the boundaries of a state match the boundaries of the territory inhabited by an ethnic group </li> <li> Slide 56 </li> <li> Geometric Boundaries Part of US border with Canada is an arc that follows the 49 th parallel for 1300 miles from Minnesota to Washington </li> <li> Slide 57 </li> <li> Religious Boundaries In a few cases religion has been used to select a boundary between states The British split India into states based on religion Hindus in India, Muslims in Pakistan Northern Ireland is majority Protestant and is part of the UK Ireland is 95% Catholic and is independent from the UK </li> <li> Slide 58 </li> <li> Language Boundaries After WWI, language was the most important factor the Allies used in creating new states and changing the boundaries of existing states esp. in Eastern and Southern Europe Ex. Bulgaria, Hungary, Poland Yugoslavia and Czechoslovakia were created by grouping people of similar languages together into one country both separated into many countries in the 1990s </li> <li> Slide 59 </li> <li> Cypruss Green Line Boundary Read about this p. 271-272 </li> <li> Slide 60 </li> <li> Boundaries Inside States Local gov. boundaries are sometimes drawn to separate different nationa...</li></ul>