poetry rhymes, rhyme schemes, and the sound devices
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POETRYRhymes, Rhyme Schemes, and the Sound devices
POINT OF VIEW IN POETRYPOET
The poet is the author of the poem.SPEAKER
The speaker of the poem is the narrator of the poem.
RHYTHMRhythm It refers to the actual aural experience. The sound that results from a line of poetry or a verse
The beat created by the sounds of the words in a poem
Factors impacting rhythm:Timing: pauses, accelerationsinteraction of the meter with pronunciation of words and rhyme.
FORM - the appearance of the words on the page
LINE - a group of words together on one line of the poem
STANZA - a group of lines arranged together
KINDS OF STANZASCouplet=a two line stanzaTriplet (Tercet)=a three line stanzaQuatrain=a four line stanzaQuintet=a five line stanzaSestet (Sextet)=a six line stanzaSeptet=a seven line stanzaOctave=an eight line stanza
Perfect rhyme (exact, true, full)The ending sounds of both words are identicalThe initial vowel sound in both words must be identical sky /high Sound before the vowel sound must differ. Green/meanBoth words must have the same stresses. Try /sigh
Characteristics of Near rhyme (half, slant, approximate, off, oblique)Final consonant sounds are the same initial consonants and vowel sounds are different.Mat and not
assonance or consonance are key components of rhyme
AssonanceNear rhymeRepetition of vowel Sounds in two or more non-rhyming wordsA Mad Man And A Fat Ham
ConsonanceNear RhymeRepetition of consonant sounds in two or more non-rhyming wordsMake Calm Calculations quickly
Alliteration Repetition of the initial Vowel or consonant sound in two or more words
Crosby, Stills, Nash and Young - Helplessly HopingHelplessly Holding Her Hand
OnomatopoeiaThe formation of a word from a sound associated with what is namedBuzz, bang, beep
Some Other Types of Near RhymeRich rhyme (French for rime riche)Word that rhymes with its homonym.blue/blew, through/threwEye rhyme Based on spelling and not on sound.love/move, come/home
INTERNAL RHYMEA word inside a line rhymes with another word on the same line.
Once upon a midnight dreary, while I pondered weak and weary.
From The Raven by Edgar Allan Poe
Auditory Imagery:The Aural experience Listen to the following pieces of music and use your IMAGINATION to create a free write or word palette
Where are you transported to when you listen? What do you see or feel in this place? DESCRIBE WHAT YOU HEAR
END RHYMEA word at the end of one line rhymes with a word at the end of another line
Hector the CollectorCollected bits of string.Collected dolls with broken heads And rusty bells that would not ring.
WHAT IS A RHYME SCHEME?
A Rhyme scheme is a pattern seen in the arrangement of lines in a poem or lyrics for music. letters of the alphabet represent sounds to be able to visually see the pattern.
Robert Herrick- To AntheaBid me to weep, and I will weep, (a)While I have eyes to see; (b)And having none, yet I will keep (a)A heart to weep for thee. (b)
Identify the rhyme scheme in W.B. YeatsTwo Songs from a Play (excerpt)I saw a staring virgin stand aWhere holy Dionysus died, bAnd tear the heart out of his side, b And lay the heart upon her hand aAnd bear that beating heart away; cAnd then did all the Muses sing dOf Magnus Annus at the spring, dAs though God's death were but a play. c
FIGURATIVELANGUAGEConnotative literary devices
METAPHOR and SIMILEA direct comparison of two unlike things
All the worlds a stage, and we are merely players.William Shakespeare
Turn into a simile: all the world is like a stage, and we are like the players
IMPLIED METAPHORThe comparison is hinted at but not clearly stated.
The poison sacs of the town began to manufacture venom, and the town swelled and puffed with the pressure of it.from The Pearlby John Steinbeck
EXTENDED METAPHOR:Conceit: A metaphor that goes several lines or possible the entire length of a work. Specific to poetry with purpose of showing a relationship between dissimilar things. Conceits are often seen as witty, complex, intellectual and/or startling
Allegory: a thematic or didactic story in which people, things or happenings have interconnected symbolic meaning
Amphigory and parodyA nonsensical piece of writing (such as Lewis Carroll's "Jabberwocky"), especially one that parodies a serious piece of writing.
A text that imitates the characteristic style of an author or a work for comic effect
Parodies in Alices AdventuresSpeak Roughly by Carroll
Speak roughly to your little boy, And beat him when he sneezes: He only does it to annoy, Because he knows it teases. Speak Gently by G.W. Langford
Speak gently! It is better farTo rule by love than fear; Speak gently; let no harsh words mar The good we might do here!
HyperboleExaggeration often used for emphasis.What Am I?Im bigger than the entire earth More powerful than the sea Though a million, billion have tried Not one could ever stop me. I control each person with my hand and hold up fleets of ships. I can make them bend to my will with one word from my lips. Im the greatest power in the world in this entire nation. No one should ever try to stop a childs imagination.
Litotesfrom the Greek word 'litos' which means simpleUnderstatement - basically the opposite of hyperbole. Often it is ironic or a double negativeHe is not the kindest person I've met. That is no ordinary boy. He is not unaware of what you said behind his back. This is no minor matter. The weather is not unpleasant at all.
Ex. Calling a slow moving person Speedy (verbal irony)
Idioms and Idiomatic expressionsAn expression where the literal meaning of the words is not the meaning of the expression. It means something other than what it actually says. Often referred to as cliches because of a common linguistic understanding and overuse
Its raining cats and dogs
PERSONIFICATIONand ANTHROPOMORPHISMAnthropomorphism is the act of giving the characteristics of humans to an animal, a god or an inanimate thing.
Personification is the literary term used to describe this act in writing
Meter and tempoPatterns in Poetry
SYLLABLEWhat is a syllable? a unit of pronunciation having one vowel sound, with or without surrounding consonants, forming the whole or a part of a word
Determine the syllablesBut soft, what light through yonder window breaks.
METERA pattern of stressed and unstressed syllables.
Meter occurs when the stressed and unstressed syllables of the words in a poem are arranged in a repeating pattern.
A Metrical foot is one unit of syllabic measurement (2-3 syllables total) (x) unstressed ( / ) stressed
Similar to a heart beat, IAMBIC FOOT (x /) is the meter used by most hip hop artists (and Shakespeare*
METER cont.TYPES OF FEET (cont.) Iambic - unstressed, stressed Trochaic - stressed, unstressed Anapestic - unstressed, unstressed, stressed Dactylic - stressed, unstressed, unstressed
Identifying Meter?Monometer One Foot per lineDimeter Two Feet per lineTrimeter Three Feet per lineTetrameter Four Feet per linePentameter Five Feet per lineHexameter Six Feet per lineHeptameter Seven Feet per lineOctameter Eight feet per line
*Types of VerseBlank Verse (formal): Any verse comprised of unrhymed lines all in the same meter, usually iambic pentameter. It was developed in Italy and became widely used during the Renaissance because it resembled classical, unrhymed poetry.
Rhyming Verse (formal):Two successive lines of which the final words rhyme with another.
Free Verse (informal): a form of poetry that refrains from consistent meter patterns, rhyme, or any other musical pattern
BLANK VERSE POETRY
Written in lines of iambic pentameter, but does NOT use end rhyme.from Julius Ceasar
Cowards die many times before their deaths;The valiant never taste of death but once.Of all the wonders that I yet have heard,It seems to me most strange that men should fear;Seeing that death, a necessary end,Will come when it will come.
FREE VERSE POETRYUnlike metered poetry, free verse poetry does NOT have any repeating patterns of stressed and unstressed syllables.
Does NOT have rhyme.
Limericksfive linesUsually anapaestic meterThe first line traditionally introduces a person and a placeUsually witty and/or obscene
Edward LearThere was an Old Man with a nose,Who said, 'If you choose to suppose,That my nose is too long,You are certainly wrong!'That remarkable Man with a nose.
There was an Old Man of Peru,Who never knew what he should do;So he tore off his hair,And behaved like a bear,That intrinsic Old Man of Peru.
*********Didactic: Used for teaching purposes*http://www.alice-in-wonderland.net/alice7a.html***