PMBOK 4th Edition_Glossary - EN TO VN.pdf

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<ul><li><p>GLOSSARY OF PMBOK 4TH EDITION</p><p>Term in English Term in Vietnamese Definition in Vietnamese</p><p>Acceptance Criteria Tiu ch nghim thuNhng tiu ch, bao gm c cc yu cu v hiu sut v cc iu kin quan trng, cn phi c p ng trc khi cc kt qu ca d n c chp nhn.</p><p>Acquire Project Team Thu nhn i d n Quy trnh khng nh s sn sng, cng nh tip nhn i lm vic cn thit hon thnh cc cng vic ca d n.</p><p>Activity Hot ng Mt thnh phn cng vic c thc hin trong qu trnh d n.</p><p>Activity Attributes Cc thuc tnh ca hot ng</p><p>Nhng thuc tnh lin quan n mi hot ng, c th c a vo danh sch cc hot ng. Thuc tnh bao gm m hot ng, cc hot ng tin nhim, k nhim, dng quan h, vt (lead) v tr (lag), nhu cu ngun lc, thi hn, cc rng buc v gi thit.</p><p>Activity Code M hot ngMt hoc nhiu gi tr ch hoc s th hin c tnh cng vic hoc c th phn loi cc hot ng nhm sp xp, chn lc cc hot ng trong cc bo co.</p><p>Activity Identifier Nhn dng ca hot ng</p><p>on ch hoc s ngn c gn cho mi hot ng nhm phn bit chng vi cc hot ng khc. Nhn dng ny thng duy nht trong mi s mng hot ng ca d n.</p><p>Activity List Danh sch cc hot ng</p><p>Mt ti liu dng bng ca cc hot ng theo lch trnh bao gm m t hot ng, nhn dng, v m t phm vi mc chi tit cc th nh vin d n c th hiu c cn phi lm vic g.</p><p>Actual Cost (AC) Chi ph thc t (AC)</p><p>Tng chi ph c dng v ghi li khi thc hin mt hot ng hoc mt thnh phn ca WBS trong mt khong thi gian nht nh. Chi ph thc t i khi ch l cng lao ng trc tip, nhng cng c th bao gm c cc chi ph gin tip. Ngi ta cn gi chi ph thc t l chi ph thc t cho cng vic c thc hin (ACWP). Xem thm phn Qun l gi tr thu c v K thut v gi tr thu c.</p><p>Actual Cost of Work Performed (ACWP)</p><p>Chi ph thc t cho cng vic c thc hin (ACWP)</p><p>Xem phn Chi ph thc t (AC)</p><p>Actual Duration Thi lng thc tL khong thi gian theo n v lch, t lc bt u hot ng cho n thi im tnh ton, nu hot ng vn tip din, hoc n lc kt thc, nu hot ng hon thnh.</p><p>Administer Procurements Qun tr mua sm</p><p>Quy trnh qun l cc mi quan h mua sm, gim st hiu sut thc hin cc hp ng cng nh tin hnh cc thay i, cc hot ng khc phc, nu cn.</p><p>Analogous Estimating c lng tng t</p><p>Mt k thut c lng cc gi tr tham s nh phm vi, chi ph, ngn sch v thi lng hoc s o nh kch c, trng lng v phc tp, bng cch s dng cc hot ng tng t trong qu kh lm c s c lng cng cc tham s, o ca mt hot ng trong tng lai.</p></li><li><p>Application Area Lnh vc ng dng</p><p>Mt phn loi ca cc d n c chung cc thnh phn thit yu vi chng, nhng khng nht thit phi c, hay quan trng cho tt c mi d n. Lnh vc ng dng thng c xc nh hoc cho sn phm (nh cc cng ngh hay phng php sn xut ging nhau) hoc cho dng khch hng (nh khch hng ni b so vi bn ngoi, khch hng chnh ph so vi thng mi) hoc ngnh cng nghip (nh dch v, sn xut -t, hng khng, CNTT.v.v.). Cc l nh vc hot ng c th c chng ln nhau.</p><p>Approved Change Request</p><p>Yu cu thay i c ph chun</p><p>Mt yu cu thay i c x l qua quy trnh kim sot thay i hp nht v c ph chun.</p><p>Arrow Diagramming Method (ADM)</p><p>Phng php lp s qua mi tn (ADM)</p><p>Mt phng php lp s trong cc hot ng c th hin bng cc mi tn. V d: CPM</p><p>Assumptions Gi nhGi nh l cc nhn t m, i vi cc mc ti u hoch nh, chng c cho l ng, c thc, hoc chc chn mc d khng c chng minh.</p><p>Assumptions Analysis Phn tch cc gi nhMt k thut nghin cu mc chnh xc ca cc gi nh v nhn din cc ri ro cho d n t s thiu chnh xc, vng chc hay y ca cc gi nh .</p><p>Authority Thm quyn Quyn s dng ngun lc, kinh ph, ra quyt nh hoc ph chun.</p><p>Backward Pass i chiu ngc</p><p>Cch tnh ngy bt u v kt thc mun ca nhng phn cn thiu trong cc hot ng d n, c xc nh bng cch i chiu ngc li trn s mng hot ng, t ngy kt thc. Xem thm phn Phn tch mng hot ng.</p><p>Baseline ng cn c</p><p>L mt k hoch d n c ph chun, cng nhng thay i c ph chun. Dng y lm cn c so snh vi hiu sut thc t xem chnh lch c nm trong ngng chp nhn c khng. Thng thng ta so snh vi ng cn c hin ti, nhng i khi vi ng cn c gc, hoc ng khc. C cc ng cn c cho chi ph, lch trnh, k thut, o hiu sut. </p><p>Bidders' Conference Hi ngh thu Cuc hp vi nhng nh cung cp tim nng trc khi h chun b v np h s d thu.</p><p>Bottom-up Estimating c lng t di ln</p><p>Mt phng php c lng cng vic. Cng vic c chia thnh cc phn nh, chi tit hn. Sau c lng nhng th cn thit hon thnh cc phn nh cng vic ny, v cc c lng c cng li cho thy tng s lng cn thit hon thnh cng vic. chnh xc ca c lng t di ln ph thuc vo kch c v phc tp ca cc phn cng vic c chia nh cc mc di.</p><p>Brainstorming Tr tu tp thMt k thut thu thp d liu v sng to c th dng nhn din ri ro, a ra tng hoc gii php bng cch dng i d n hoc cc chuyn gia trong lnh vc.</p><p>Budget Ngn sch Mt c lng c ph chun cho d n, cho mt thnh phn ca WBS, hoc cho mt hot ng. Xem thm phn c lng.</p><p>Budget at Completion (BAC)</p><p>Ngn sch lc kt thc (BAC)</p><p>Tng ngn sch dnh cho cc cng vic ca d n, ca mt thnh phn ca Cu trc chia nh cng vic (WBS) hay ca mt hot ng. Tng gi tr c hoch nh cho mt d n.</p><p>Budgeted Cost of Work Performed (BCWP)</p><p>Chi ph theo ngn sch cho cng vic c thc hin (BCWP)</p><p>Xem phn Gi tr thu c (EV)</p><p>Budgeted Cost of Work Scheduled (BCWS).</p><p>Chi ph theo ngn sch cho cng vic c hoch nh (BCWS)</p><p>Xem phn Gi tr thu c (EV)</p></li><li><p>Buffer. D tr (Buffer) Xem phn D phng.</p><p>Business Case Phng n kinh doanhM t v nh gi mt d n mi trong mt t chc theo quan im kinh t doanh nghip.</p><p>Business Plan K hoch kinh doanhM t mt d n kinh doanh mi vi mc ti u thuyt phc cc nh u t vn v li ch kinh t ca n. D n kinh doanh a n vic hnh thnh mt n v kinh doanh mi.</p><p>Business Process Quy trnh nghip vQuy trnh nghip v l mt dng cng vic t c mt mc tiu nghip v. Cc v d tiu biu l nhng quy trnh v bn sn phm hay dch v.</p><p>Buyer. Ngi mua Ngi mua sn phm, dch v hay cc kt qu ca mt t chc.</p><p>Calendar Unit n v theo lchn v thi gian nh nht c dng trong lch trnh ca d n. n v theo lch thng c dng l gi, ngy hoc tun, nhng cng c th l qu, thng, ca kp, thm ch l pht.</p><p>Change Control Kim sot thay i Xc nh, vn bn ha, ph chun hoc bc b, v kim sot nhng thay i i vi cc ng cn c ca d n.</p><p>Change Control Board (CCB)</p><p>Ban kim sot thay i (CCB)</p><p>Mt ban c thnh lp t mt s bn hu quan (stakeholder) c trch nhim kim tra, nh gi, ph chun, tr hon hay bc b cc thay i i vi d n, vi mi quyt nh, nhn xt u c ghi li.</p><p>Change Control Process</p><p>Quy trnh kim sot thay i Xem phn Kim sot thay i hp nht</p><p>Change Control System</p><p>H thng kim sot thay i</p><p>Mt tp hp cc th tc chnh thc xc nh cch thc m cc kt qu cng nh h s ca d n s c kim sot, thay i v ph chun. Trong hu ht lnh vc ng dng, h thng kim sot thay i l mt b phn ca h thng qun l cu hnh.</p><p>Change Request Yu cu thay iYu cu m rng hay thu hp phm vi d n, sa i chnh sch, quy trnh, k hoch hoc th tc, iu chnh chi ph hoc ngn sch, hoc iu chnh lch trnh.</p><p>Claim Khiu niMt ngh, yu cu, hoc i hi v quyn ca ngi bn vi ngi mua hay ngc li, v vic xem xt, n b hoc tr tin theo cc iu khon ca hp ng, v d nh cho mt thay i gy tranh ci.</p><p>Client Khch hng Th trng, t chc hoc c nhn m d n pht trin kt qu cho h.</p><p>Close Procurements Kt thc mua sm Quy trnh hon tt mi vic mua sm ca d n.</p><p>Close Project or Phase </p><p>Kt thc d n hoc giai on d n</p><p>Quy trnh kt thc mi hot ng trong mi nhm quy trnh qun l d n chnh thc hon tt mt d n hoc mt giai on d n.</p><p>Closing Processes Quy trnh kt thcCc quy trnh c thc hin kt thc mi hot ng trong mi nhm quy trnh qun l d n chnh thc hon tt mt d n hoc mt giai on d n.</p><p>Code of Accounts M k khai Mt h thng s c dng nhn dng mi thnh phn ca Cu trc chia nh cng vic (WBS)</p><p>Collect Requirements Thu thp yu cu Quy trnh xc nh v vn bn ha nhu cu ca cc bn hu quan (stakeholder) p ng cc mc tiu ca d n.</p><p>Co-location Tp trung vo mt chMt chin lc sp xp v tr ca t chc sao cho cc thnh vin d n c ngi gn nhau tng cng giao tip, quan h cng vic v hiu qu.</p><p>Common Cause Nguyn nhn ph bin</p><p>Mt ci ngun ca cc chnh lch nm trong h thng v c th d on c. Trn biu kim sot, n xut hin nh mt phn ca dao ng quy trnh ngu nhin (v.d. dao ng t mt quy trnh c th coi l bnh thng hay bt thng), v th hin di cc im ngu nhin trong gii hn kim sot. Cn c gi l nguyn nhn Ngu nhin. Khc vi nguyn nhn c bit.</p></li><li><p>Communications Management Plan</p><p>K hoch qun l giao tip</p><p>Ti liu m t: cc nhu cu v k vng v giao tip trong d n; thng tin s c phn pht nh th no, di hnh thc no; khi no, ni no vic giao tip xy ra v ai chu trch nhim cung cp mi dng thng tin. K hoch qun l giao tip l mt phn ni dung, hoc l mt k hoch thnh phn ca bn k hoch qun l d n.</p><p>Conduct Procurements Thc hin mua sm Quy trnh nhn cc h s d thu, chn bn bn v giao hp ng.</p><p>Configuration Management Qun l cu hnh</p><p>Quy trnh xc nh v nh ngha cc hng mc (ti liu, m hoc d liu chng trnh) trong mt h thng, kim sot cc thay i trong sut vng i ca chng, ghi li v bo co tnh trng mi hng mc cng nh cc yu cu thay i, v xc nhn tnh trn vn v chnh xc ca chng (nh ngha IEEE Std-729-1983).</p><p>Configuration Management System</p><p>H thng qun l cu hnh</p><p>Mt h thng con ca h thng qun l d n chung. l tp hp cc th tc chnh thc dng p dng cc hng dn v k thut, qun tr v gim st nhm: xc nh v vn bn ha cc chc nng v c tnh ca mt sn phm, kt qu, dch v hoc mt thnh phn; kim sot mi thay i vo cc c tnh ; ghi li v bo co mi thay i cng nh hin trng trin khai thay i; h tr v kim tra cc sn phm, kt qu, hoc thnh phn thm nh vic tun th vi cc yu cu. N bao gm h s, cc h thng theo di, v cc mc ph chun cn thit cho vic y quyn v kim sot cc thay i.</p><p>Constraint Hn ch</p><p>Trng thi, cht lng, hoc cm gic hn ch i vi mt xu hng hot ng/khng hot ng. Vic p dng hn ch, t pha ni b hay bn ngoi, n mt d n lm nh hng n hiu sut ca d n, hoc ca mt quy trnh. V d, hn ch v lch trnh l bt k mt gii hn no tc ng n vic lp lch trnh cho cc hot ng, thng thng di hnh thc thi hn bt buc.</p><p>Contingency Pht sinh Xem D phng</p><p>Contingency Allowance Tr cp d phng Xem D phng</p><p>Contingency Plan K hoch d phng pht sinhK hoch c xy dng nh mt bin php i ph vi cc ri ro c chp nhn tin hnh khi ri ro xy ra</p><p>Contingency Reserve D phng pht sinhKhon ngn sch hoc thi gian nm ngoi c lng lm gim nguy c ph tri i vi mc ti u n mt mc m t chc chp nhn c.</p><p>Contract Hp ngL tha thun c tnh rng buc bn bn phi cung cp sn phm, hoc dch v, hoc kt qu c ch r, v buc bn mua phi tr tin cho nhng ci .</p><p>Contract Administration Qun l hp ng Qun l mi quan h vi nh cung cp.</p><p>Contract Closure Kt thc hp ng Hon tt v quyt ton hp ng, bao gm c gii php cho cc hng mc ang cn ng.</p><p>Control Account im kim sot</p><p>Mt im kim sot ca lnh o ni m phm vi, ngn sch (cc k hoch ngun lc), chi ph thc t v lch trnh c hp nht so snh vi mt gi tr thu c nhm o hiu sut. Xem thm phn Gi cng vic.</p><p>Control Chart Biu kim sotMt biu th hin cc d liu theo thi gian trong cc gii hn kim sot c lp trc, v c mt ng trung tm gip pht hin xu hng ca cc gi tr dch chuyn v pha cc gii hn.</p><p>Control. Kim sot</p><p>So snh hiu sut thc t vi hiu sut hoch nh, phn tch cc chnh lch, nh gi cc xu th nh hng n nhng ci thin quy trnh, nh gi cc phng n thay th c th, v khuyn co hnh ng khc phc ph hp nu cn.</p></li><li><p>Corrective Action Hnh ng khc phc Hng dn bng vn bn cho vic thc hin cng vic d n a hiu sut trong tng lai tr v qu o theo k hoch qun l d n.</p><p>Cost Budgeting Lp ngn sch chi ph Phn b cc c lng chi ph cho cc hot ng ring l.</p><p>Cost Control Kim sot chi ph Quy trnh gim st tnh trng ca d n cp nht ngn sch d n cng nh qun l cc thay i i vi ng cn c chi ph.</p><p>Cost Estimating c lng chi ph Xy dng mt c lng v chi ph ca cc ngun lc cn thit hon thnh cc hot ng d n.</p><p>Cost Management Plan</p><p>K hoch qun l chi ph</p><p>Ti liu a ra cc nh dng, thit lp cc hot ng v tiu ch hoch nh, cu trc cng nh kim sot cc chi ph ca d n. K hoch qun l chi ph nm trong, hoc l mt k hoch thnh phn ca bn k hoch qun l d n.</p><p>Cost of Quality Chi ph ca cht lng</p><p>Mt phng php xc nh chi ph m bo cht lng. Cc chi ph ngn nga v nh gi (chi ph tun th) bao gm chi ph hoch nh cht lng, kim sot cht lng (QC) v m bo cht lng nhm m bo vic tun th cc yu cu (nh o to, h thng QC v.v...). Chi ph h hng (chi ph khng-tun th) bao gm chi ph lm li cc sn phm, cc thnh phn b hng, cc quy trnh khng tun th, chi ph bo hnh cng vic v chi ph cho vic lng ph hay lm mt thng hiu.</p><p>Cost Performance Baseline</p><p>ng cn c hiu sut chi ph</p><p>Mt phin bn c bit ca ngn sch chia theo thi gian dng so snh chi ph thc t vi chi ph k hoch nhm xc nh c cn tin hnh cc hot ng khc phc t c cc mc tiu ca d n.</p><p>Cost Performance Index (CPI) Ch s hiu sut (CPI)</p><p>Mt php o hiu sut chi ph ca d n, l t s ca Gi tr thu c (EV) trn chi ph thc t. CPI = EV/AC.</p><p>Cost Variance Chnh lch chi ph Mt php o hiu sut chi ph ca d n, l hiu s ca Gi tr thu c (EV) v chi ph thc t. CV = EV - AC</p><p>Cost-Plus-Fixed-Fee (CPFF) Contract</p><p>Hp ng dng Chi ph cng khon ph c nh (CPIF)</p><p>Mt dng hp ng bi hon chi ph khi ngi mua bi hon chi ph cho ngi bn (nhng khon c xc nh trong hp ng) cng thm mt khon ph c nh cho li nhun.</p><p>Cost-Plus-Incentive-Fee (CPIF) Contract</p><p>Hp ng dng Chi ph cng khon thng (CPIF)</p><p>Mt dng hp ng ngi mua tr ngi bn cc chi ph thc t, cng mt khon thng cho li nhun. Cc hp ng bi hon chi ph thng bao gm mt khon thng t ngi mua khi ngi bn t hoc vt cc mc tiu ca d n, v d v tin thi gian hay tng chi ph.</p><p>Cost-Reimbursable Contract</p><p>Hp ng dng bi hon chi ph</p><p>Mt dng hp ng ngi mua tr ngi bn cc chi ph thc t, cng mt khon thng cho li nhun. Cc hp ng bi hon chi ph thng bao gm mt khon thng t ngi mua khi ngi bn t hoc vt cc mc tiu ca d n, v d v tin thi gian hay tng chi ph.</p><p>CPM CPMMt k thut phn tch mng hot ng c tnh di thi gian ca d n bng cch phn tch cc chui hot ng c t khong linh hot nht (t co gin - slack) nht.</p><p>Crashing Cp tp</p><p>Mt k thut nn di thi gian d n c bit bng cc hnh ng gim thi lng, sau khi phn tch mt lot phng n sao cho nn c thi lng ti u vi chi ph ti thiu. Phng php tiu biu l tin hnh cc hot ng song song v b sung ngi lm vic. Xem thm phn Di chuyn nhanh v Nn lch trnh.</p><p>Create WBS (Work Breakdown Structure)</p><p>Cu trc chia nh cng vic (WBS)</p><p>Quy trnh chia cc kt qu chuyn giao v cng vic d n thnh nhng phn nh hn v d qun l hn.</p><p>Criteria Tiu chCc tiu chun, quy tc, hoc kim th (test) lm c s cho mt nhn nh hoc quyt nh, hoc lm c s nh gi mt sn phm, dch v, kt qu hoc quy trnh.</p></li><li><p>Critical Activity Hot ng gng (critical activity)</p><p>Mt hot ng trn ng gng (critical path). Thng thng c xc nh bng phng php tm ng gng. Mc d mt s hot ng vn l "gng", theo ngha ca t in, d khng nm trn ng gng, nhng cch hiu ny him khi dng trong ng cnh d n.</p><p>Critical Chain Method Phng php chui gng (critical chain)Mt k thut phn tch mng hot ng nhm iu chnh lch trnh d n trong trng hp ngun lc b hn ch.</p><p>Critical Path ng gng (critical path)</p><p>Thng thng, nhng khng phi lun lun, l chui cc hot ng xc nh di thi gian ca d n. l ng di nht chy sut d n. Xem thm phn Phng php tm ng gng.</p><p>Critical Path Methodology (CPM)</p><p>Phng php tm ng gng (CPM)</p><p>Mt phng php phn tch mng hot ng nhm xc nh linh hot ca lch trnh trn nhiu mng l-gic trong mng hot ng ca d n, v xc nh di thi gian ti thiu ca d n. Bt u sm v kt thc sm ca hot ng c tnh theo cch i xui, bt u t mt thi im bt u nht nh. Bt u mun v kt thc mun ca hot ng c tnh theo cch i ngc, bt u t mt thi im kt thc nht nh. Xem thm phn ng gng.</p><p>Data Date (DD) Ngy cp d liu Ngy m h thng bo co ca d n cung cp d liu thc t v hin trng cng nh kt qu t c.</p><p>Decision Tree Analysis</p><p>Phn tch r nhnh quyt nh</p><p>R nhnh quyt nh l s m t mt quyt nh di s cn nhc la chn t mt s cc phng n khc nhau. N bao gm cc kh nng, cng chi ph hoc li ch nhn c ca mi chui l-gic ca cc s kin, hoc quyt nh trong tng lai, v dng vic phn tch gi tr tin t k vng gip cho t chc xc nh nhng gi tr tng i ca cc phng n hnh ng. Xem thm phn Phn tch gi tr tin t.</p><p>Decomposition Phn r</p><p>Mt k thut hoch nh dng chia phm vi v cc kt qu ca d n thnh nhng phn nh hn, d qun l hn, ch dng li khi xc nh c mi cng vic, kt qu ca phm vi d n mc chi tit h tr vic thc hin, gim st v kim sot cng vic.</p><p>Defect Khim khuytKhim khuyt hoc thiu st trong mt thnh phn ca d n, khng p ng ng yu cu hoc m t k thut, do vy cn phi sa cha hoc thay th.</p><p>Defect Repair Sa cha khim khuyt</p><p>Mt ti li...</p></li></ul>