pmbok 4th edition chapter 2 - project life cycle and organization

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  • 2. PROJECT LIFE CYCLE AND ORGANIZATION Projects and project management take place in an environment that is broader than that of the project itself. Understanding this broader context helps ensure that work is carried out in alignment with the goals of the enterprise and managed in accordance with the established practice methodologies of the organization. This chapter describes the basic structure of a p j p project as well as other important high-level considerations including how projects impact ongoing operational work, the influence of stakeholders beyond the immediate project team, and how organizational structure affects the way the project is staffed, managed, and executed.
  • 3. 2.1 The Project Life Cycle-0verviewA project life cycle is a collection of generally sequential andsometimes overlapping project phases whose name and number aredetermined by the management and control needs of the organizationor organizations involved in the project, the nature of the project itself,and its area of application.While every project has a definite start and a definite end, thespecific deliverables and activities that take place in between will varywidely with the p j y project.The life cycle provides the basic framework for managing the project,regardless of the specific work involved.
  • 4. 2.1 The Project Life Cycle-0verview
  • 5. 2.1 The Project Life Cycle-0verview
  • 6. 2.1.2 Product vs. Project Life Cycle RelationshipsThe product life cycle consists of generally sequential, non-overlappingproduct phases determined by the manufacturing and control need of theorganization.The last product life cycle phase for a product is generally the productsretirement. Generally, a project life cycle is contained within one ormore product life cycles.Care should be taken to distinguish the project life cycle from the productlife cycle.All projects have a purpose or objective, but in those cases where theobjective is a service or result, there may be a life cycle for the service orresult, not a product life cycle.
  • 7. 2.1.3 Project PhasesProject phases are divisions within a project where extra control isneeded to effectively manage the completion of a major deliverable . Project phases are typically completed sequentially, but can overlap insome project situations.The high level nature of project phases makes them an element of theproject life cycle. A project phase is not a project management process group. Regardlessof the number of phases comprising a project, all phases have similarcharacteristics:
  • 8. Project PhasesWhen phases are sequential, the close of a phase ends with some form oftransfer or handoff of the work product produced as the phase deliverable.This phase end represents a natural point to reassess the effort underwayand to change or terminate the project if necessary.These points are referred to as phase exits, milestones, phase gates,decision gates stage gates, or kill points The work has a distinct focus that gates, gates points.differs from any other phase.This often involves different organizations and different skill sets. Theprimary d li i deliverable or objective of the phase requires an extra d bl bj i f h h i degree of fcontrol to be successfully achieved..
  • 9. Projects vs. Operational Work OrganizationsProjects Operations Performed by people Performedbypeople Performedbypeople yp p Constrainedbylimited Constrainedbylimited resources resources Planned executed and Planned,executedand Planned executed and Planned,executedand controlled controlled Temporary Ongoing Unique Repetitive
  • 11. 2.3StakeholdersDefinition:Stakeholdersare personsororganizations whoareactivelyinvolvedintheproject or whoseinterestsmaybepositivelyornegativelyaffected bytheperformanceorcompletionoftheproject. b h f l i f h jExamplesofpersonsororganizationsExamples of persons or organizations customers sponsors p theperformingorganization thepublic
  • 12. 2.3Stakeholders Exertinfluenceontheproject,itsdeliverables,andtheproject p j , , p j teammembers. Theprojectmanagementteammust identifybothinternalandexternalstakeholders inordertodeterminethe in order to determine the projectrequirements andexpectationsofallpartiesinvolved. Furthermore,theprojectmanagermust managetheinfluenceofthevariousstakeholders inrelationtotheprojectrequirementstoensureasuccessful outcome.
  • 13. 2.3StakeholdersConcepts: p ProjectTeam[Members] ProjectManagementTeam OperationsManagement i FunctionalManagers Functional Managers
  • 14. 2.3StakeholdersStakeholdersResponsibilityandAuthority: p y y Varyinglevelswhenparticipatingonaproject Changeoverthecourseoftheprojectlifecycle. RANGE fromoccasionalcontributionstofullprojectsponsorship Caution! CanhaveanadverseIMPACT ontheprojectobjectives.
  • 15. 2.3StakeholdersStakeholderIdentification: Stakeholderidentificationisacontinuousprocess Itcanbedifficult. Identifyingstakeholdersandunderstandingtheirrelativedegreeof influenceonaprojectiscritical.Failuretodosocanextendthe influence on a project is critical. Failure to do so can extend the timelineandraisecostssubstantially. Impactoflaterecognitionofastakeholder
  • 17. 2.4OrganizationalInfluencesonProjectManagement Theorganizationalculture,style,andstructure influencehow g , y , projectsareperformed. Aprojectmanagershouldunderstandtheseastheyaffectaproject. Anorganizations An organizations degreeofprojectmanagementmaturity and itsprojectmanagementsystems its project management systems canalsoinfluencetheproject. Whenaprojectinvolvesmorethanoneorganizations,theproject willbeinfluencedallofthem. Theorganizationalcultureisanenterpriseenvironmentalfactor.
  • 18. 2.4OrganizationalInfluencesonProjectManagementCulturesandstyles mayhaveastronginfluenceonaprojectsability y y g p j y tomeetitsobjectives.CulturesandstylesaretypicallyknownasculturalnormsThenormsinclude[OrWhatdotheculturalnormsinclude?]The norms include [Or What do the cultural norms include?] acommonknowledgeregardinghowtoapproach gettingthework done, whatmeansareconsideredacceptableforgettingtheworkdone, and whoisinfluential infacilitatingtheworkgettingdone. Theprojectmanagermustknowwhichindividualsinthe organizationarethedecisionmakersandworkwiththemto organization are the decision makers and work with them to influenceprojectsuccess.
  • 19. 2.4OrganizationalInfluencesonProjectManagementMostorganizationshavedevelopeduniqueculturesthatmanifestin g p q numerouswaysincluding,butnotlimitedto: Sharedvisions,values,norms,beliefs,andexpectations, Policies,methods,andprocedures, Viewofauthorityrelationships,and Workethicandworkhours. Work ethic and work hours Detailedstudyof organizationalculture is beyond the scope of this Detailed study of organizational cultureisbeyondthescopeofthis course.
  • 21. 2.4OrganizationalInfluencesonProjectManagementOrganizationalstructureisanenterpriseenvironmentalfactorWhyitisimportanttobyunderstood?Itaffecttheavailabilityofresourcesandinfluencehowprojectsareconducted.conductedWhatarethedifferenttypesofstructures?What are the different types of structures?Organization