Please take out a sheet of paper. The review for the final will begin when the bell rings.

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<ul><li><p>Please take out a sheet of paper. The review for the final will begin when the bell rings. </p></li><li><p>Review your last quiz. </p><p>Work with those at your table to understand each question and answer.</p><p>We will continue reviewing for the final shortly. Take notes!!</p></li><li><p>Apply concepts relating to reproduction, genetics, DNA, and gene action.</p></li><li><p>Do now (4 min)Objectives (1 min)</p><p>Review retake quiz. (15 min)</p><p>Review other topics for semester final (30 min)</p></li><li><p>Asexual v sexualHow many parents?Clones genetically identical or unique combinations of chromosomes?</p><p>Gametes: sperm and eggs (in sexual reprod.)Formed by process of meiosis, in testes or ovariesIndependent assortment of the chromosomes leads to variation in offspring</p><p>Fertilization: gametes combine to form a zygote </p></li><li><p>Combination of traits = phenotypes (physical)</p><p>Combination of genes = genotypes (genetic)</p><p>Dominant vs recessive traits</p><p>Homozygous vs heterozygousChromosomes are made of DNA (with proteins attached)</p><p>Independent assortment of chromosomes during meiosis (production of gametes) leads to new combinations (variation) in offspring</p><p>Pairs of chromosomes in nucleus of body cells</p><p>Genes are on chromosomes</p></li><li><p>The code for each protein is determined by a unique gene.Proteins are made of amino acids (about 20 different kinds).Proteins have a variety of functions, for example:Structural (keratin)Enzyme (amylase)Transport (hemoglobin)A proteins function is determined by its amino acid sequence, which determines its shape &amp; size.A change in its amino acid sequence can change its shape or size, and therefore its functioning.</p></li><li><p>Chargaffs ratio and its use as evidence for DNA structure %A=%T, %G=%C</p><p>Structure:Very long macromolecule, 2 strands</p><p>Sugar-phosphate backbones held together with strong covalent bonds</p><p>Bases: adenine, thymine, cytosine, guanine</p><p>What pairs with what? - weak hydrogen bonds</p><p>A gene is a section of a DNA molecule</p></li><li><p>A gene is transcribed into mRNA, which is then translated into a protein, which has a specific structure and function.</p><p>When a gene is expressed it means its protein is being synthesized in this manner.</p><p>There are many different proteins, each of which are coded for by a different gene.</p><p>Different types of cells express different genes, leading to differences in the proteins present.</p><p>For example, hemoglobin is in red blood cells, and myosin is in muscle cells.</p></li><li><p>DNA base sequences of a gene can be represented by the letters A (adenine), T (thymine), C (cytosine), and G (guanine) like this: TATACCGTGACT</p><p>What would the complementary strand be?</p><p>A gene is transcribed into mRNA. What mRNA sequence would be created from the original sequence?</p></li><li><p>DNA base sequences of a gene can be represented by the letters A (adenine), T (thymine), C (cytosine), and G (guanine) like this: TATACCGTGACT</p><p>What would the complementary strand be?ATATGGCACTGA</p><p>A gene is transcribed into mRNA. What mRNA sequence would be created from the original sequence?AUAUGGCACUGA</p></li><li><p>In what type of cell would a mutation need to happen in order for it to be inherited by an organisms offspring?</p><p>After fertilization, when would a new mutation need to happen in order for it to be found in all of the new organisms cells?</p></li><li><p>Will count as final retake for 3 standards.</p><p>In addition, the total grade is worth 10% of your grade. </p><p>Therefore, STUDY!</p></li></ul>

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