Please take out a sheet of paper. The review for the final will begin when the bell rings

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  • Please take out a sheet of paper. The review for the final will begin when the bell rings.

  • Review your last quiz.

    Work with those at your table to understand each question and answer.

    We will continue reviewing for the final shortly. Take notes!!

  • Apply concepts relating to reproduction, genetics, DNA, and gene action.

  • Do now (4 min)Objectives (1 min)

    Review retake quiz. (15 min)

    Review other topics for semester final (30 min)

  • Asexual v sexualHow many parents?Clones genetically identical or unique combinations of chromosomes?

    Gametes: sperm and eggs (in sexual reprod.)Formed by process of meiosis, in testes or ovariesIndependent assortment of the chromosomes leads to variation in offspring

    Fertilization: gametes combine to form a zygote

  • Combination of traits = phenotypes (physical)

    Combination of genes = genotypes (genetic)

    Dominant vs recessive traits

    Homozygous vs heterozygousChromosomes are made of DNA (with proteins attached)

    Independent assortment of chromosomes during meiosis (production of gametes) leads to new combinations (variation) in offspring

    Pairs of chromosomes in nucleus of body cells

    Genes are on chromosomes

  • The code for each protein is determined by a unique gene.Proteins are made of amino acids (about 20 different kinds).Proteins have a variety of functions, for example:Structural (keratin)Enzyme (amylase)Transport (hemoglobin)A proteins function is determined by its amino acid sequence, which determines its shape & size.A change in its amino acid sequence can change its shape or size, and therefore its functioning.

  • Chargaffs ratio and its use as evidence for DNA structure %A=%T, %G=%C

    Structure:Very long macromolecule, 2 strands

    Sugar-phosphate backbones held together with strong covalent bonds

    Bases: adenine, thymine, cytosine, guanine

    What pairs with what? - weak hydrogen bonds

    A gene is a section of a DNA molecule

  • A gene is transcribed into mRNA, which is then translated into a protein, which has a specific structure and function.

    When a gene is expressed it means its protein is being synthesized in this manner.

    There are many different proteins, each of which are coded for by a different gene.

    Different types of cells express different genes, leading to differences in the proteins present.

    For example, hemoglobin is in red blood cells, and myosin is in muscle cells.

  • DNA base sequences of a gene can be represented by the letters A (adenine), T (thymine), C (cytosine), and G (guanine) like this: TATACCGTGACT

    What would the complementary strand be?

    A gene is transcribed into mRNA. What mRNA sequence would be created from the original sequence?

  • DNA base sequences of a gene can be represented by the letters A (adenine), T (thymine), C (cytosine), and G (guanine) like this: TATACCGTGACT

    What would the complementary strand be?ATATGGCACTGA

    A gene is transcribed into mRNA. What mRNA sequence would be created from the original sequence?AUAUGGCACUGA

  • In what type of cell would a mutation need to happen in order for it to be inherited by an organisms offspring?

    After fertilization, when would a new mutation need to happen in order for it to be found in all of the new organisms cells?

  • Will count as final retake for 3 standards.

    In addition, the total grade is worth 10% of your grade.

    Therefore, STUDY!

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