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HANDBOLND AT THF.

UNIVERSITY OF

TORONTO PRESS

PLATO'S REPUBLICJOWETT AND CAMPBELL

Vol..

II.

RontonH

ENRY FROWDE

Oxford University Press Warehouse Amen Corner, EC.

MAC.MIl.l.AN

&

CO., 66

FIFTH AVENUE

7/4

S?

PLATO'S REPUBLICTHE GREEK TEXT

EDITED,

WITH NOTES AND ESSAYSBY THE LATE

B.

JOWETT,

M.A.I

MASTER OF BALLIOI. COM REGIUS PROFESSOR OF GREEK IN THE UNIVERSITY OF OXFORD DOCTOR IN THEOLOGY OF THE UNIVERSITY OF LEYDEN

AND

LEWIS CAMPBELL,EMERITUS PROFESSOR OF GREEKST.

M.A.,

LL.D.

HONORARY FELLOW OF BALLIOL COLLEGEIN

THE UNIVERSITY OF

ANDREWS

IN

THREE VOLUMESVOL.II.

ESSAYS

Crforb

AT THE CLARENDON PRESS1894

-

5

rforo

PRINTED AT THE CLARENDON PRESSBY HORACE HART, PRINTER TO THE UNIVERSITY

CONTENTS OF

VOL.

II

PAGES

Essays by the late Professor Jowett (Unfinished)

i-xxxv.

Essays by Professor Lewis CampbellIn dex

I_ 34o

.

341-356

ESSAYSBY

THE LATE PROFESSOR JOWETT(

unfinished)

ESSAY

I

ON THE TEXT OE GREEK AUTHORS, AND ESPECIALLY OE PLATOI.

That Greek MSS.;

various

that glosses and marginal interpretadegrees tions have crept into the text that particular letters or;

are misvvritten and

misspelt in

combinations of,

0. 0, C, are often interchanged; that contractions are another source of confusion : that forms of words orusages which were allowed by Thucydides or Plato have sometimes received a more Attic impress from the hand of

letters, as for

example

A, A, A,

f",

T,

grammarians, or have decayed insensibly into the forms that and usages of the common or Macedonian language;

the writing

is

more regular and uniform than can be sup-

posed to have proceeded from authors who lived in the days when grammar was only beginning to be studied;

that the texts of the Classics have passed through changes

sometimes

in

the;

uncial

sometimes

in

the

cursive

minuscule] stage

that

[orlike

the copyists of

many MSS.led

modernto

editors

had a love of emendation, which

them:

improve upon the meaning or grammar of their author that emendation is often needed, and that many emenda;

these general disputed by any one who has a critical acquaintance with Greek authors. But such general considerations do not justify the indisfacts

tions are probably, almost certainly, right

would

hardly

be

have to criminate use of conjectural emendation. distinguish the kind of mistake before we can determine

We

whether

it

can be corrected.

That mistakes

often

happen

iv

(hi thea safe text

7\.\/

of Greek Authors,is

is

;

the inference which

sometimes drawn thatall

they arc liable to happen equally

in

authors and

in all

MSS.. andconjectural

thai all therefore afford equal material for theart.is

a

mistake

may

also vary

The kind of very erroneous one. from the interchange of V and T

is corrected at sight up to a decree of confusion in which grammar and sense are lost in anarch)-. And where such mistakes are most numerous and complicated they

which

are

amend.

generally beyond the reach of human sagacity to Unless new and better MSS. are discovered, the

corruption must remain a corruption to the end of time. Nor can the most ingenious conjecture ever attain thecertainty of a

verifying faculty tion of the critic, who

The

reading well supported by MS. authority. is only the knowledge and modera-

may

indeed have acquired the power

of seeing in the dark, or at least of seeing better thanothers, but

who may

also have found in lifelong studies

An art or only the material of his own self-deception. kind of knowledge which is attractive and at the same timewantingin certain tests of truth is

always

liable to fall intoIt

the hands of projectors and inventors.

may

be

culti-

vated by many generations of scholars without their once making the discovery that they have been wasting theirlives in a frivolous

and unmeaningit

pursuit.

Fromafter

beingto

subordinate and necessary

may come

to be thought the

crowning accomplishment of the scholar.

But

all,

compare small things withonlylike the

great, ingenious conjectures arcin

hypotheses of physical science

the days

when

experiments, which, while retaining their attractiveness, diverge further and further from the

there were no

truth.

A

sanguine temperament and sometimes even a goodflush the

memory

mind andlittle

interfere with the exercise ofwill

the judgement.

A

knowledgein

furnish objections

to an old reading or

arguments

The

inventor has a natural

support of a new one. fondness for his own inven-

andtions

especially of Plato.

v

and

is

their truth.

ready to offer his reputation as a guarantee of He has got into a region in which the common

sense of the

many

is

unable to control him, andis

in

which no

one can demonstrate that he

only a visionary. And as learning or imitative talent or even genius for scholarship

are often

unaccompanied by philosophical power, which is the natural corrective of a lively fancy, the sanction of great

names has not been wanting to great mistakes There have been Atticists in modern as well as in ancient times, whohave regarded grammar as a science of rules without exceptions, and who have assumed a greater clearness andaccuracy than ever existed in the text of ancient authors. Metrical canons which are not universally true have been applied with the rigour and severity of a law of nature.It

has been forgotten that there was a transitional age ofin

language

which syntax and prosody had not yet become

separate studies, and that in every age the subtlety of language far exceeds the minuteness of grammatical rules.

Writers like Sophocles or Thucydides or Plato have been even divested of the peculiarities of their own style, inorder to satisfy some more general notion of sense and Greek. Not the value of the correction but the name andreputation of the critic have been regarded. The authority of Bentley. Porson, and Hermann has obtruded on the text

of the Classics

many unfounded emendations which have

been allowed to remain, as a homage to their reputation. just estimate of the value of emendations requires

A

a consideration, (i) of the limits of thethis sort of divination.;

human

faculties in

No

definite

measure can be given;

of them they must depend on the nature of the materials but often the real limits are in inverse proportion to the

ingenuity and facility of scholars in making emendations (2) there must be a consideration of the nature of MSS.In textual as in historical criticism the invention or imaginationin

:

which has no foundation ofair.

facts

the

The emendations which

lie

can only build castles on the surface have

vi

On

the

Text of Greek Authors,

been generally made by previous editors, while the deeper corruptions are hardly ever remediable. And in proportion to the character of the MS, the necessity or possibility of

emendation

will

greatly vary.

No

generalities about the

frequency of mistakes, or the possibility of glosses, or the probability in favour of the more difficult reading can be set against the readings of MSS., which may be erroneousbut cannot be corrected out of nothing. a consideration of authors as well as ofof language in sonictois

(3)

There must be

MSS.

The range

too wide or irregular or uncertain

admit even of a

fair

probability

inis

the emendation of

them.

The Doricstand ona

or Acolic dialect

not so wellin will

known

to us as the Attic:

and again, conjecturesfooting.

prose and

verse

different

Xor

any one

say that he is as certain of the use of language in Pindar and Theocritus as in Sophocles and Euripides, or of the

metre

in a line

of a chorus as of an Iambic or Trochaicis

verse, or

that a fragment

equally within the range of

emendation with a passage that has a context. Yet the method of conjecture which was practised by the firsteditors

seems to have continued as

a habit of

mind among'

scholars,

who dois

new conjectures

not always remember that the field for ever narrowing, and that the woods and

pastures new' of fragments, to which they return, arc the least likely to afford passages