plants water&soil

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  • Plants & WaterPlants contain large amounts of water. Most herbaceous parts of plants are over 80% water.

  • Plants use water for several purposesPhotosynthesis: For each molecule of glucose made by plants, 6 or more molecules of water must be broken apart.

  • Plants use water for several purposesTurgor: The abundant presence of water in the cell stiffens the herbaceous parts of the plant.

  • Plants use water for several purposesHydrolysis: Plants often break apart large molecules by adding water molecules or parts of water molecules. *

  • Plants use water for several purposesTranslocation: The materials in a plant can be moved only if they are dissolved in water.

  • Clay, loess & loam - what is good soil ?

  • Soil

  • Soil is the unconsolidated mineral material on the immediate surface of the Earth that serves as a natural medium for the growth of land plants.

  • composition of soil by volumeIdeal fertile soilMineral 45%Organic matter 5%Water 25%Air 25%

  • soil particleThe larger the particles are, the more SiO2 the soil has, the more barren it is.

    SizemmMinerals (%)SiO2Al2O3Fe2O3CaOMgOK2ONa2OP2O51~0.283.929.341.121.790.381.781.210.080.2~0.0473.8713.474.



  • Soil typesSoil textureclayclayloesssilt, with small amount of clay and sandloamsand, silt, clay

  • ClayMineral: Al2[(OH)4Si2O5] nH2O Al2O3 2SiO2 2H2O etc.

    poor aeration and drainage

    plastic when wet, when dry become firm

  • Clay is only good for paddy rice fields.

  • loessMineral: most carbonates small amount of clay minerals

    good aeration, water-holding ability

    easy to be transported by river and wind for example: 1935 dust storm in midwest United States

  • loammixture of clay, silt and sandsandy, plastic when weteasily water containmore nutrients than sandy soils ideal fertile soil

  • soil pH valueThe chemistry of plant elements in the soil can be affected by pH.Soil pH is the measurement of acidity (sourness) and alkalinity (sweetness).

  • If the soil pH is acid, or extremely low, some micronutrients become too soluble and occur in concentrations great enough to harm plant.

  • If soil pH is high, in the alkaline range, many of the nutrients can be precipitated out and not be available to plants.

  • The best pH value for plants is 6,5 .soil pH value

    in soilpHin soilpHNa2CO3NaHCO3MgCO3CaCO3 CaCO3-withCO2Ca(HCO3)212~138.5~9.511.4710.208.486.13~8.4CaSO4H2ONa2SO4MgSO4NaClMgCl2NH4ClH2CO3KAl(SO4)2AlCl37.07.7~7.16.3~6.5~


  • Fruit

    PLANT TYPESOIL pH Apple 5.0-6.5Apricot 6.0-7.0Arbor Vitae 6.0-7.5Blueberry, high bush 4.0-5.0Cherry, sour 6.0-7.0Cherry, sweet 6.0-7.5 Crab apple 6.0-7.5 Cranberry, large 4.2-5.0Peach 6.0-7.5Pineapple 5.0-6.0Raspberry, red 5.5-7.0Strawberry 5.0-6.5

  • Vegetables

    PLANT TYPESOIL pH Asparagus 6.0-8.0Beets, table 6.0-7.5Broccoli 6.0-7.0Cabbage 6.0-7.5 Carrot 5.5-7.0 Cauliflower 5.5-7.5Celery 5.8-7.0Cucumber 5.5-7.0Lettuce6.0-7.0Muskmelon 6.0-7.0 Onion 5.8-7.0 Potato 4.8-6.5 Rhubarb 5.5-7.0Spinach 6.0-7.5Tomato 5.5-7.5

  • SummaryClay: perfect water-holding ability good for paddy rice fields.Both loess and loam can be tillable soil for most of plants. But loam is better, because of more nutrients.more than 1.5% organic matterpH value by 6.5

  • Different soil types develop in different climates.Soils-4-1Image: T. Loynachan

  • Prairie soils have a dark surface layer (horizon), are rich in minerals, and form in grasslands widespread across Earths middle latitudes.Soils-4-2Images: NRCS

  • Forest soils have a light gray upper horizon, a horizon rich in aluminum and/or iron, and form in warm to cool humid regions where coniferous forests grow.Image: Soil Classifiers of Michigan

  • Tropical soils are reddish and iron-oxide rich, depleted in nutrients, and form in humid and warm regions.Soils-4-4Images: National Cooperative Soil Survey, University of Nebraska

  • Organic soils are dark colored, rich in decomposed organic matter, and form in poorly drained lowlands such as swamps and wetlands.Soils-4-5Images: Bruce Molnia, Soil Classifiers of Michigan

  • Desert soils form in arid settings and are commonly rich in calcium carbonate.Images: Martin Miller, NRCS

  • Tundra soils form in Arctic environments, have a dark organic-rich upper layer, and a mineral rich layer over frozen ground.Soils-4-7Images: Travis Hudson, Alaska/Yukon Society of Professional Soil Scientists


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