plant form and function soil and plant nutrition

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Plant Form and Function Soil and Plant Nutrition. Plant biology, perhaps the oldest branch of science, is driven by a combination of curiosity and need curiosity about how plants work need to apply this knowledge judiciously to feed, clothe, and house a burgeoning human population. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Unit XI: Plant Structure and Function

Plant Form and FunctionSoil and Plant NutritionPlant biology, perhaps the oldest branch of science, is driven by a combination of curiosity and needcuriosity about how plants work need to apply this knowledge judiciously to feed, clothe, and house a burgeoning human population.Plant NutritionWhat does a plant need to survive?9 macronutrients (required in large quantities)C, H, N, O, P, S, K, Ca, Mg8 micronutrients (required in small quantities)Fe, Cl, Cu, Mn, Zn, Mo, B, Niusually serve as cofactors of enzymatic reactions

Soil Bacteria and Nitrogen AvailabilityNitrogen-fixing bacteria convert atmospheric N2plants absorb ammonium (NH4+), nitrate (NO3-)

AtmosphereN2SoilN2N2Nitrogen-fixingbacteriaOrganicmaterial (humus)NH3 (ammonia)NH4+ (ammonium)H+ (From soil) NO3 (nitrate)NitrifyingbacteriaDenitrifyingbacteriaRootNH4+SoilAtmosphereNitrate and nitrogenousorganiccompoundsexported inxylem toshoot systemAmmonifyingbacteria

Mineral DeficiencyThe most common deficiencies are those of nitrogen, potassium, and phosphorus

Phosphate-deficientHealthyPotassium-deficientNitrogen-deficient

HydroponicsRemove only one macronutrient to see effects on plant

SoilTexture and Composition

Texture depends on size of particlessand-silt-clayloams: equal amounts of sand, silt, clayCompositionHorizons-living organic matterA horizon: topsoil, living organisms, humusB horizon: less organic, less weathering than A horizonC Horizon: parent material for upper layers Soil conservation issuesfertilizers, irrigation, erosion

Soil AerationA mixture of mineral particles, decaying organic material, living organisms, air, and water, which together support the growth of plants

Nutritional AdaptationsSymbiotic Relationshipssymbiotic nitrogen fixationLegume root nodules contain bacteroids (Rhizobium bacteria)mutualistic relationshipCrop rotationMycorrhizaesymbiotic associations of fungi and rootsmutualistic relationshipEctomycorrhizae - mycelium forms mantle over root Endomycorrhizae - does not form mantle; hyphae extend inwardParasitic plantsplants that supplement their nutrition from hostmistletoe, dodder plant, Indian pipeCarnivorous plantssupplement nutrition by digesting animals

Staghorn fern, an epiphyteEPIPHYTESPARASITIC PLANTSCARNIVOROUS PLANTSMistletoe, a photosynthetic parasiteDodder, a nonphotosynthetic parasiteHosts phloemHaustoriaIndian pipe, a nonphotosynthetic parasiteVenus flytrapPitcher plantsSundewsDodder

Venus flytrapPitcher plantPhytoremediationPoplars remove nitratesMustard removes uranium

Phytoremediation

WetlandsPhytoremediationPesticide Levels (ppb) in Ground Water Before & After Phytoremediation Activities

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