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  • Pioneers in Arts, Humanities, Science,Engineering, Practice

    Volume 7

    Series editor

    Hans Gnter Brauch, Mosbach, Germany

  • More information about this series at http://www.springer.com/series/15230http://www.afes-press-books.de/html/PAHSEP.htmhttp://www.afes-press-books.de/html/PAHSEP_Elise_Boulding.htm

  • J. Russell BouldingEditor

    Elise Boulding: Writingson Peace Research,Peacemaking, and the Future

    123

  • EditorJ. Russell BouldingBloomingtonINUSA

    Acknowledgement The photograph on the title page and others in this volume were takenfrom the personal photo collection of the editor who also granted the permission forpublication in this volume. Special thanks to Sebastian Rottmair, creator of the UN Job Listand the Little Peacemaker website, for the image on the cover of the Swords Into Ploughsharesstatue at the UN garden: https://www.rottmair.de/2010/12/17/swords-into-plowshares/.A book website with additional information on Elise Boulding, including videos and his majorbook covers is at: http://www.afes-press-books.de/html/PAHSEP_Elise_Boulding.htm.

    ISSN 2509-5579 ISSN 2509-5587 (electronic)Pioneers in Arts, Humanities, Science, Engineering, PracticeISBN 978-3-319-30986-6 ISBN 978-3-319-30987-3 (eBook)DOI 10.1007/978-3-319-30987-3

    Library of Congress Control Number: 2016945845

    The Author(s) 2017This work is subject to copyright. All rights are reserved by the Publisher, whether the whole or partof the material is concerned, specifically the rights of translation, reprinting, reuse of illustrations,recitation, broadcasting, reproduction on microfilms or in any other physical way, and transmissionor information storage and retrieval, electronic adaptation, computer software, or by similar or dissimilarmethodology now known or hereafter developed.The use of general descriptive names, registered names, trademarks, service marks, etc. in thispublication does not imply, even in the absence of a specific statement, that such names are exempt fromthe relevant protective laws and regulations and therefore free for general use.The publisher, the authors and the editors are safe to assume that the advice and information in thisbook are believed to be true and accurate at the date of publication. Neither the publisher nor theauthors or the editors give a warranty, express or implied, with respect to the material contained herein orfor any errors or omissions that may have been made.

    Copyediting: PD Dr. Hans Gnter Brauch, AFES-PRESS e.V., Mosbach, Germany

    Printed on acid-free paper

    This Springer imprint is published by Springer NatureThe registered company is Springer International Publishing AG Switzerland

  • For the 96th birthday of mymother Elise Boulding

  • Introduction and Overview

    Elise Boulding as Peace Researcher, Peacemakerand Futurist

    This is the second of four volumes devoted to the life and writings of EliseBoulding. The first volume (PAHSEP 06) includes information about her life and aselection of writings that span the breadth of her contributions to the fields of peaceresearch and peacemaking, feminism, the family, Quakerism and the future.

    This volume includes thirteen additional texts by Elise Boulding on peaceresearch, peacemaking and the future, and encompasses fields where she madesignificant scholarly contributions.1 Something that has struck me in the process ofselecting and organizing texts for these volumes is that her life and work defysimple categorization. The topics and themes that she cared and wrote about wereso interwoven that most texts could be placed in more than one category.I remember once hearing my father, Kenneth Boulding, say with a twinkle in hiseye There are two kinds of people, those who like to categorizeand those whodont. Both Kenneth and Elise had the ability to categorize without allowingthemselves to be boxed in by the categories as categorizers tend to do. Untilcompiling this volume I thought of my father, well-known for his contributions togeneral systems theory, as the systems thinker and my mother as more practical anddown-to-earth. Now I see more clearly how widely Elise Bouldings mind ranged

    1The cover photograph, taken in 1990 at Douglas College, her undergraduate alma mater, is oneof the few I have of her in an academic gown and it seemed fitting for this volume where manyof the selection have a strong academic slant.

    vii

  • across disciplines, encompassing the academic in ways that sought to translate theideas into the realm of the day-to-day.

    Having stated that Elise Bouldings life and work defy simple categorization,I do find it useful to define three stages of her adult life as a way to frame herwritten work based on the relative importance of the roles of wife/mother, scholarand teacher, and activist:2

    1. Wife/Mother (1941196625 years). This begins with marriage to KennethBoulding in 1941, after which they lived in Princeton NJ (1941), Nashville, TN(19421944), Ames, IA (19451948) and Ann Arbor (19491966), with therole of mother to five children being dominant from 1947 to 1966. Scholarlyactivities included an M.S. in Sociology from Iowa State University (1949),translation of Fred Polaks The Image of the Future from Dutch (19541957),various research/staff positions at the University of Michigan culminating inPh.D. in Sociology (19591966). She was active in the American FriendsService Committee (AFSC) and Womens International League for Peace andFreedom (WILPF) during this time. By the end of this period her five childrenare in middle school (1), high school (3) and college (1).

    2. Scholar/Teacher (1967198518 years). This includes years teaching at theUniversity of Colorado/Boulder (19671977) and Dartmouth (19781985) andleadership roles in numerous professional organizations (IPRA, COPRED,AAAS, ASA, ISA) and international organizations (UNESCO, United NationsUniversity). She was member of the Congressional Commission on Proposalsfor the National Academy of Peace and Conflict Resolution. Continues to beactive in AFSC and WILPF (International Chair from 19681971). Family roleshifts from mother to grandmother of 12 by end of the time period.

    2The Chronology of Elise Bouldings Life (Sect. 1.2, PAHSEP 06) provides additional informationabout specific roles during these time periods.

    viii Introduction and Overview

  • 3. Activist (1986201024 years).3 Returns to Boulder to 624 Pearl StreetResidence Community of retired scholars (19851996). Several years afterdeath of Kenneth Boulding (1993) moves to Boston area first to attachedapartment to daughters house (19961999), then to one-room apartment inNorth Hill Retirement Community (20002007) and finally to the North HillSkilled Nursing Facility (2008-2010). Active in many organizations at local(such as Boulder Parenting Center), national such as (AFSC, WILPF) andinternational levels (such as editor International Nonviolent Peace Team/PeaceServices Newsletter 19931995 and Peace Councilor with Interfaith WorldPeace Council 19952010). Continued involvement in professional organiza-tions (Secretary-General of IPRA 1988-1991; active in New England PeaceStudies Association 19962010). By the end of her life she was grandmother to16 and great-grandmother to 6.

    Elise Boulding in her office at Dartmouth College (1984). Source This photo is from the personalphoto collection of the editor who granted permission to include it here

    3Although the third stage lasted 6 years longer than the second, that actual time period forpublications was the same.

    Introduction and Overview ix

  • An analysis of the bibliography of Elise Bouldings writings (Sect. 2.2,PAHSEP 06) shows that the first stage of her life, not surprisingly, did not leavemuch room for writing (30 publications), while the second and third stages wereabout equally prolific: 9.1/year for the scholar/teacher stage (163 total) and 9.7/yearfor the activist stage (175).3 That Elise Bouldings output of publications actuallyincreased in the activist stage of her life is remarkable when we consider that she nolonger had the formal institutional support that she had when she taught at theUniversity of Colorado and at Dartmouth.

    Elise Boulding at Peace Abbey, Sherbourne, MA (2009). Source This photo is from the personalphoto collection of the editor who granted permission to include it here

    x Introduction and Overview

  • Overview of Writings in this Volume

    The 13 texts in this volume are divided into three parts:Part I: Elise Boulding on Peace Research and Peace Education include five

    chapters, most from her scholar/teacher phase. Chapter 1 (The Study of Conflict andCommunity in the International System: Summary and Challenges to Research,1967) and Chap. 2 (Peace Research: Dialectics and Development, 1972) provide anhistorical context and overview of the relatively new, but rapidly developing fieldof peace research. Chapter 3 (Perspectives of Women Researchers on Disarmament,National Security and World Order, 1981) introduces Elise Bouldings distinctivefeminist approach as it relates to peace research, and Chap. 4 (World Security andthe Future from the Junior High School Perspective, 1981) illustrates EliseBouldings knack for bringing the childs viewpoint into arenas where they arenormally ignored. Finally, Chap. 5 (Peace Education as Peace Development, 1987)presents an insiders view of the development of the field of Peace Education andhow it serves as a bridge between the domains of the peace researcher and theactivist.

    Part II: Elise Boulding on Peacemaking includes five chapters, most from heractivist phase of life. Chapter 6 (The Child and Nonviolent Social Change, 1978)presents a scholarly model of the socialization process of children, drawing uponmany disciplines that focuses on how children can be encouraged to develop intononviolent, altruistic social activists who seek to create a better world. Chapter 7(Image and Action in Peace Building, 1988) explores in some detail the experiencegained in Imaging a World Without Weapons workshops, which have inspired andempowered citizens of all walks of life. Chapter 8 (New Understanding ofCitizenship: Path to a Peaceful Future?, 2003) presents a model of citizenship thatencompasses the local, national and international, and Chap. 9 (The Other America:The Forgivers and the Peacemakers, 2003) presents the hidden history of thetraditions of nonviolence in the United States. Finally, Chap. 10 (Witness to IslamsCreativity: A Scholars Reflections on the Islamic Contribution to Peace DialogueAmong Faiths, 2003) provides a glimpse of the kinds of personal connections in theIslamic community that Elise Boulding made during of lifetime of peace researchand peacemaking.

    Part III: Elise Boulding on the Future includes three chapters, two from herscholar/teacher phase and one from her activist phase. Chapter 11 (Futurology andthe Imaging Capacity of the West, 1970) and Chap. 12 (The Dynamics of ImagingFutures, 1978) represents Elise Bouldings most significant contributions to thefield of future studies since her translation of Fred Polaks The Image of the Future

    Introduction and Overview xi

  • was published. Chapter 13 (A Journey into the Future: Imagining a NonviolentWorld, 2002) presents Elise Bouldings experience with an Imaging a WorldWithout Weapons workshop for inmates of Norfolk Prison and provides a nice codato the analysis of these workshops in Chap. 7.

    Bloomington, IN, USA J. Russell BouldingOctober 2015

    xii Introduction and Overview

  • Contents

    Part I Elise Boulding on Peace Research and Peace Education

    1 The Study of Conflict and Community in the InternationalSystem: Summary and Challenges to Research (1967) . . . . . . . . . . 31.1 Founding of UNESCO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41.2 National Versus International Interests . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51.3 Institutions for Peace Research . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61.4 Some Current Research Approaches . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71.5 Perspectives for Future Research . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15

    2 Peace Research: Dialectics and Development (1972) . . . . . . . . . . . . 17References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24

    3 Perspectives of Women Researchers on Disarmament,National Security and World Order (1981) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 273.1 The Informants . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 283.2 Research Agendas and the Relevance of Existing Research . . . . 32

    3.2.1 The New Conceptual Framework Perspective . . . . . . . 323.2.2 The New Social Order Perspective . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34

    3.3 Current and Planned Research of Respondents. . . . . . . . . . . . . 373.4 Concepts of Security, and Images of a Disarmed World . . . . . . 383.5 Perspectives as Women. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 403.6 Conclusion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41

    4 World Security and the Future from the JuniorHigh School Perspective (1981) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 434.1 Introduction. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 434.2 This Is What the World Is Like . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44

    xiii

  • 4.3 Fears and Hopes for the World in 1995 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 444.4 Tackling a Social Problem Close to Home . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 464.5 Questions from the Audience. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 484.6 Addendum: A View of the Future from

    a Rural Junior High . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 514.7 Conclusion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54

    5 Peace Education as Peace Development (1987) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 555.1 The Old Internationalism in Peace Education: 18881939 . . . . . 565.2 The New Internationalism in Peace Education: 19641986 . . . . 585.3 Challenges to Peace Education in the Next Decades . . . . . . . . . 615.4 Peace Development Skills . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 625.5 Peace Learning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 635.6 Concluding Reflections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65

    Part II Elise Boulding on Peacemaking

    6 The Child and Nonviolent Social Change (1978) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 696.1 The Situation of the Child in Todays World. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 696.2 Ingredients for a Socialization Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 716.3 The Phylogenetic Substrate of Behavior . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 736.4 Developmental and Chronological Sequences . . . . . . . . . . . . . 796.5 The Childs Set of Social Spaces . . . . ....

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