phytochemicals in cranberries
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DESCRIPTIONPhytochemicals in Cranberries. By Thais De Nardo Maria Fernanda Polit Kimberly Steffen FST 694 – Phytochemicals in Fruits and Vegetables November 8 th , 2007. Introduction. Cranberries are dwarf shrubs of the family Ericaceae, genus Vaccinium and subgenus Oxycoccus . - PowerPoint PPT Presentation
Phytochemicals in Cranberries
ByThais De NardoMaria Fernanda PolitKimberly Steffen
FST 694 Phytochemicals in Fruits and VegetablesNovember 8th, 2007
IntroductionCranberries are dwarf shrubs of the family Ericaceae, genus Vaccinium and subgenus Oxycoccus.
There are four species of cranberry:Vaccinium Oxycoccus or Oxycoccus palustrisVaccinium microcarpum or Oxycoccus microcarpusVaccinium macrocarpon or Oxycoccus macrocarusVaccinium erythrocarpum or Orxycoccus erythrocarpus
IntroductionCranberries are shrubs of approximately 5 to 20 cm height and 2 m long. With wiry stems, not thickly woody and small evergreen leaves. The berry is initially white and turns in to a deep red when it is ripe. Cranberries are harvested in the fall from late Septemberinto October.
Phytochemicals in CranberriesCranberries contain many phenolic compounds:
AnthocyaninsFlavonoids Proanthocyanidins Condensed tannins Low molecular weight phenolic acids
Phytochemicals CranberriesChen et al found that the major phenolic acid detected in Cranberries is Benzoic acid. The study also found the presence of (+)-Catechin, p-anisic acid and myricetrin.Chen, 2001
Phytochemicals in CranberriesChen, 2001
Phytochemicals in CranberriesVinson et al showed that cranberries have the highest content of total phenolics per serving by weight among 20 analyzed fruits (373mg of total phenols/55grams of cranberries).
Phytochemicals in CranberriesCranberries were ranked in the same study #6 in overall antioxidant quality.Vinson, 2001
Phytochemicals in CranberriesCranberries have a wide protective activity: Prevention of adhesion of certain bacteria in urinary tract infections May help against heart disease, cancer and other diseases.
Phytochemicals in CranberriesThese health benefits are probably the result of synergistic effects of all phytochemicals present in Cranberries.
Cranberrys health effects on cancer prevention
Cranberrys health effects on cancer preventionCancer is a generic name for more than 100 diseases that can affect all body parts.
Cancer occurs when cells become abnormal and start dividing rapidly, leading to the formation of more cells without control or order.
Cancer is the second leading cause of death in the United States
Cranberrys health effects on cancer preventionSeveral epidemiological studies have proved that an increase in the consumption of fruits and vegetables are associated with a decrease in the risk of cancer.
Recent studies show that not only antioxidant activity of cranberries contributes to the observed antitumor activities but also suggests that this anticancer activity may involve a variety of mechanisms
Cranberrys health effects on cancer preventionIn 2004 a UCLA (Neto, 2007) study showed that water soluble cranberry phenolic extracts inhibit proliferation of several human tumor lines:
2 oral cancer cell lines (CAL27 and KB) 4 colon cancer cell lines (HT-29, HCT-116, SW480, and SW620)3 prostate cancer cell lines (RWPE-1, RWPE-2, and 22Rv1)
Quercetin in cranberriesInhibits the growth of MCF human breast adenocarcinoma HT-29 human colon adenocarcinomaK562 human chronic myelogenous leukemia cell lines. Mammary MCF-7 cells
Cranberrys health effects on cancer preventionThe studies shown that quercetin chemopreventive action includes: induction of apoptosis inhibition of epidermal growth factor receptor expression and associated tyrosine kinase activityreduced expression of Ras protein in colon cancer cells and primary colorectal tumors increased expression of endogenous inhibitors of matrix metalloproteinases phytoestrogenic activity involving interaction with the estrogen a- and b-receptors of human
Proanthocyaninds Cranberry proanthocyanidins have been proved to inhibit: ODC (ornithine decarboxylase) in epithelial cellsTo selectively inhibit the growth of H460 human large cell lung carcinoma, HT-29 colon adenocarcinoma, and K562 chronic myelogenous leukemia cells
Cranberry peelThe peel of cranberry fruit contains pentacyclic triterpenoid ursoli acid which has shown to inhibit growth of: Several leukemia cell lines A-549 human lung carcinoma Tumor colony formation of HT-29 and HCT116 models of colon cancer. Induces a high rate of apoptosis in MFC-7 breast tumor cell line, HepG2 human hepatoblastoma cells and HT-29 colon cells
Mechanisms for tumor inhibition:(in vitro studies)Induction of apoptosis in cancer cellsDecreased invasion and metastasis as a result of the inhibition of MMPsInhibition of ornithine decarboxylase expressionActivity and inhibition of inflammatory processes including cyclooxygenase (COX) activity
Cranberrys health effects on cardio vascular diseases
Cranberries and CVDCardiovascular diseases are the leading cause of death in both men and women in most developed countries, including the United States (Chu, 2005)
Causes of CVDIncreasing age GenderHeredityPhysical inactivityObesityHigh blood pressureHigh cholesterolStressTobaccoAlcoholDiet
Cardiovascular HealthAccording to recent studies, dietary modifications are suggested to be an effective strategy to prevent CVD.
The increase in intake of one daily serving of fruits and vegetables translates to a 4% reduced risk of CVD (Chu, 2005).
Cranberry FlavanoidsCranberries contain many flavonoids and phenolic acids which studies have shown to have potent antioxidant capacity.
1. Anthocyanins2. Flavonols3. Proanthocyanidins
Antioxidant mechanisms of FlavonoidsDirect radical scavengingDown-regulation of radical productionElimination of radical precursors, such as hydrogen peroxide.Metal chelation Inhibition of xanthine oxidaseElevation of endogenous antioxidants
Cranberries and CVDCranberries have shown to have potent antioxidant activity in preventing low density lipoprotein (LDL) oxidation.
Low Density LipoproteinsIncreased rate of LDL in intima initiates an inflammatory response causing oxidation.
Oxidation leads to leasions on the arteries, known as fatty streaks.
Oxidation of human LDL is involved with development of atherosclerotic plaques in arteries, leading to heart attacks and strokes.
How can cranberries help?Proanthocyanidins have shown the highest inhibitory effect on copper-induced oxidation of LDL (Reed, 2002).
Quercetin, a flavonol, is able to be rapidly absorbed into the bloodstream of humans, and has shown antioxidant effects in vitro. (Reed, 2002).
How can cranberries help?A study done by Chu et al (2005) showed that a single serving of cranberry juice was found to significantly increase plasma antioxidant levels up to 7 hours.
The study measured the inhibition of LDL oxidation by different concentrations of cranberry (Chu, 2005):1mg cranberry/ml 50.7% inhibition2.5mg cranberry/ml 71.41% inhibtion5mg cranberry/ml 94.7% inhibition10mg cranberry/ml 100% inhibition
LDL oxidation by CranberriesChu, 2005
How can cranberries help?A study done by Porter et al (2001), looked at the actions of proanthocyanidins with inhibition of copper induced LDL oxidation in vitro. Study looked at 6 different fractions:Fraction 2 hydroxycinnamic acid and anthocyaninsFraction 3 flavonolsFraction 4 flavonols and few low molecular weight proanthocyanidinsFraction 5 and 6 proanthocyanidins
Effect of cranberry flavonoids on lag time of copper induced LDL oxidationproanthocyanidinsproanthocyanidinsPorter, 2001
How can cranberries help?A study done by Ruel et al (2005) looked at the health benefits of drinking cranberry juice (Ocean Sprays Light Cranberry Juice Cocktail) at a daily dose of 7ml/kg of body weight for 14 consecutive days.
How can cranberries help?Plasma antioxidant capacity before (white) and after (black) 14 day cranberry juice supplementationOxidized LDL before (white) and after (black) 14 day cranberry juice supplementationRuel, 2005
In summaryLDL oxidation is responsible for heart attacks and strokes.
Flavonoids in cranberries have shown to have potent antioxidant activity.
Cranberries are not a required compound in human diet, however, a diet rich in cranberries could possibly help prevent CVD.
Cranberries to prevent urinary tract infectionsPrevention as opposed to treatment.
Urinary TractSystem responsible for making urine and carrying it out of the bodyIncludes:BladderKidneysConnecting tubes
How common are UTIs?http://tbn0.google.com/images?q=tbn:DTo9nUs4saLLPM:http://www.regional.org.au/au/rrh/2001/011202_103-5.gif
How common are UTIs?
One quarter of women will experience what is known as a UTI during their lifetimeOf these, another quarter will suffer recurrent infections.
TreatmentDirect costs of treatments last year exceeded $1.6 billion.Antibiotic therapy is typical:
Pathogens such as Escherichia coli, Proteus and Pseudomonas are fimbriated gram-negative rods, and the fimbriae attach the bacteria to epithelial cells. These pathogens account for nearly all UTIs; requiring antibiotic therapy.
With treatment options hindered and expensive, cranberries, particularly in the form of cranberry juice, have been widely used for the prevention of UTIs. Cranberry has been associated with preventing UTIs for the last century. In recent years, physicians have begun to recommend daily intake of cranberry as a safe alternative to prevent UTIs. Cranberry juice, especially in the form of a juice cocktail drink with