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  • A. Melloni, Progress in photonics, Firenze 2015

    Photonic Devices

    (The control of)

    Andrea Melloni

    F. Morichetti, S. Grillanda, D. Melati, N. Peserico, M. Carminati, A. Annoni, P. Ciccarella, G. Ferrari, M. Sampietro, M. Sorel

    Politecnico di Milano, Italy

    http://photonics.deib.polimi.it

  • A. Melloni, Progress in photonics, Firenze 2015

    400 m2

    Politecnico di Milano (Italy) - Photonic Devices Lab

    http://photonics.deib.polimi.it

  • A. Melloni, Progress in photonics, Firenze 2015

    1969: 46 years of integrated optics

    3

  • A. Melloni, Progress in photonics, Firenze 2015

    Integrated photonics: ubiquitousness and complexity

    4

  • A. Melloni, Progress in photonics, Firenze 2015 5

    http://www.photonics21.org/download/Brochures/Photonics_Roadmap_final_lowres.pdf

    Market: 350 B (650 B in 2020)

  • A. Melloni, Progress in photonics, Firenze 2015

    Technologies and Waveguides

    Dn Ge:SiO2 0.53 %

    SiON

    28 %

    Si3N4

    38 %

    SOI

    140%

    As2S3 60100 %

    InP 3 / 70 %

    Mach-Zehnder D. Couplers, Y, MMI, Star couplers

    Ring Resonators

    Gratings

    6

  • A. Melloni, Progress in photonics, Firenze 2015

    BPSG

    SiO2

    SiON

    2.2

    mm

    2.2 mm

    480 nm

    220 n

    m

    HSQ / SiO2

    SiO2

    Si

    Waveguides

    Silicon Oxynitride Silicon Nitride Silicon (SOI)

  • A. Melloni, Progress in photonics, Firenze 2015 8

    Dielectric (SiO2SiONSi3N4, polymers)

    Beam forming network

    Arrayed Waveguide grating

  • A. Melloni, Progress in photonics, Firenze 2015

    Courtesy of TU/e

    Indium Phosphide

    9

  • A. Melloni, Progress in photonics, Firenze 2015

    Silicon photonics

    Slow light, trap light

    Delay lines

    CMOS silicon modulators

    Resonant Router

    Filter

    Biochip 10

  • A. Melloni, Progress in photonics, Firenze 2015

    The (potential) market forecast

    Ind

    ium

    Ph

    osp

    hid

    e

    JePPIX Roadmap Using Generic Integrated Photonics

    * * *

    * *

    Silicon Photonics

    100

    200

    300

    400

    500

    600

    700

    [M$

    ]

    2012 2013 ------------------------------------------------- 2024

    0

    800

    11

  • A. Melloni, Progress in photonics, Firenze 2015

    A Moore law for photonics (?)

    T. Baehr-Jones et al., Myths and rumours of silicon photonics, Nat. Photonics, vol. 6, Apr. 2012.

    12

    M. Smit et al., An introduction to InP-based generic integration technology, 2014 Semicond. Sci. Technol.

  • A. Melloni, Progress in photonics, Firenze 2015

    Moore law in photonics No scaling in photonics !

    Photonics as electronics. Photonics is analog !

    Plasmonic, graphene, carbon nanotubes

    CMOS compatibility Mendeleev on chip !

    More Moore or More than Moore? Integration, synergy

    Everyone does their job! generic foundry scheme

    Control & feedback, toward system-on-a-chip paradigm

    Its a long way (in my view)

    13

  • A. Melloni, Progress in photonics, Firenze 2015

    Control & Feedback: motivations

    Benefits of photonic integration lies in

    the aggregation of several components

    Technology can squeeze many devices

    in small chips

    Complex photonic systems-on-chip

    are still struggling to emerge...

    MINIATURIZATION

    INTEGRATION

    MIT

    14

  • A. Melloni, Progress in photonics, Firenze 2015

    Control & Feedback: motivations

    Benefits of photonic integration lies in

    the aggregation of several components

    Technology can squeeze many devices

    in small chips

    Complex photonic systems-on-chip

    are still struggling to emerge...

    MINIATURIZATION

    INTEGRATION

    MIT

    Technology is critical

    (Interferometric) devices suffer from

    temperature drifts, xtalk, fabrication

    tolerances, nonlinearities, aging

    High Index contrast technologies

    T = 1 K f = 10 GHz

    n = 10-4 f = 10 GHz

    w = 1 nm f = 100 GHz

    TE/TM and dependence

    15

  • A. Melloni, Progress in photonics, Firenze 2015

    Technology is critical

    (Interferometric) devices suffer from

    temperature drifts, xtalk, fabrication

    tolerances, nonlinearities, aging

    Benefits of photonic integration lies in the

    aggregation of several components

    Technology can squeeze many devices

    in small chips

    Complex photonic systems-on-chip are

    still struggling to emerge...

    MINIATURIZATION

    INTEGRATION

    MIT

    Silicon Photonics:

    T = 1 K f = 10 GHz

    n = 10-4 f = 10 GHz

    w = 1 nm f = 100 GHz TE/TM and dependent

    Gri

    dLE

    SS

    FormatLESS

    ContentsLESS

    DirectionLESS C

    olo

    rLES

    S

    Less energy Less space

    Less

    co

    sts

    Less

    Lat

    ency

    Toward a LESS world

    Control & Feedback: motivations

    16

  • A. Melloni, Progress in photonics, Firenze 2015

    physical

    effect physical

    effect

    actuation

    command

    working point

    estimation

    Sensors

    Actuators

    Definition of System

    Supervisory

    Inputs Control & Calibration

    17

  • A. Melloni, Progress in photonics, Firenze 2015

    physical

    effect physical

    effect

    actuation

    command

    working point

    estimation

    Actuators

    Photonics needs feedback and control

    Definition of System

    Supervisory

    Inputs Control & Calibration Feedback

    Sensors

    18

  • A. Melloni, Progress in photonics, Firenze 2015

    Au+NiCr+Ti

    Heater: The actuator

    SiO2 Silicon

    Length 1-3 mm 10-50 mm

    p shift 300-400 mW 10-20 mW

    Dneff / DT 110-5 C-1 210-4 C-1

    Response time 1 ms 10 ms

    Crosstalk high low

    19 S. Zanotto, Laser Photonics Rev., 2015

  • A. Melloni, Progress in photonics, Firenze 2015

    (Non Perturbative) Probes

    Monitor to detect light level in waveguides

    and provide feedback (test pin)

    Hitless (transparent), small, low power

    20

  • A. Melloni, Progress in photonics, Firenze 2015

    Light-waveguide interaction

    Band bending

    Si

    SiO2

    Valence band

    Traps

    Energ

    y

    hn

    hn

    Conduction band

    SSA process

    Interface

    Surface State Absorption

    Surface states are located

    typically within the first two/three

    silicon atomic layers ( 1 nm)

    Intra-gap energy states create a

    free carrier and a corresponding

    recombination center

    21 S. Grillanda, F. Morichetti, Nature Comm., Sept. 2015

  • A. Melloni, Progress in photonics, Firenze 2015

    Measuring the SSA induced waveguide conductance change DG through an ultrasensitive electric detection circuit

    Si

    SiO2

    DG CA CA SiO2

    metal metal L

    ContacLess Integrated Photonic Probe (CLIPP)

    SiO2

    SiO2

    Metal

    Si

    100 nm

    The CLIPP concept

    1 mm

    longitudinal view

    Contactless capacitive access to the waveguide

    Light in

    Light out

    A Si waveguide cross section L CLIPP length DNs surface free-carrier density ms carrier mobility

    Light dependent conductance variation Free carriers

    generated on the

    surface by SSA

    Carrier mobility is typically

    lower on the surface

    compared to the bulk

    Si conductivity change

    induced by light

    22

  • A. Melloni, Progress in photonics, Firenze 2015

    Measuring the SSA induced waveguide conductance change DG through an ultrasensitive electric detection circuit

    Si

    SiO2

    DG CA CA SiO2

    metal metal L

    ContacLess Integrated Photonic Probe (CLIPP)

    SiO2

    SiO2

    Metal

    Si

    100 nm

    The CLIPP concept

    1 mm

    longitudinal view

    Contactless capacitive access to the waveguide

    Light in

    Light out

    Ve ~ 1V

    fe ~ 1MHz

    ie

    90

    Re[Ywg]

    Lock-In Amplifier

    100 kW V, f0

    Im[Ywg]

    +

    Transimpedance

    Amplifier (TIA)

    Pate

    nte

    d

    Silicon Photonics: Stalking Light,

    Nature Photonics 8, 266 (2014) 23

  • A. Melloni, Progress in photonics, Firenze 2015

    CLIPP performance

    CLIPP concept demonstrated for:

    - single mode/multimode wgs

    - compact size (L down to 25 mm)

    - TE/TM polarizations

    - sensitivity down to -30 dBm

    - 40 dB dynamic range

    - speed > 20 ms (limited by TIA noise)

    Waveguide

    100 mm

    -25 -20 -15 -10 -5 010

    -1

    100

    101

    102

    Local power [dBm]

    Con

    du

    cta

    nce

    va

    ria

    tio

    nD

    G [

    nS

    ]

    TE

    TM

    L

    Top view of the CLIPP

    -30 -20 -10 0 1010

    -1

    100

    101

    102

    Conducta

    nce

    variation

    DG

    [nS

    ]

    Local power P [dBm]

    w = 480 nm

    w = 1 mm

    Ve = 1Vfe = 1 MHz

    Ve = 1 V fe = 1 MHZ

    L = 100 mm

    CLIPP electrodes

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