photography design elements, design principles & compositional

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  1. 1. Design ElementsThe Design Elements form the basic vocabulary ofVisual Design. They create interest through an image bycreating focal points to draw your eye to.We think of the elements as the basic visual material withwhich to make art.
  2. 2. Line*Line is the most simplest building blocks.Line can be used to portray a sense of movementthroughout an image or lead your eye to a subject withina photograph.*Line is not limited by straight lines but many photoshave curved lines, or zig zag lines, such as roads as theybend and even foot paths that wind.*Line can be real for instance an outline or can beimplied for instance a flock of birds flying in a Vformation
  3. 3. Tone*Most black and white images contain a range of tonal gradations. Tone is evident in both colour and black and white photographs.*An image that is rich in tone can appear much morerealistic. Tone provides an image with a certain threedimensionality.
  4. 4. Contrast*Contrast in a black and white image refers to the differencebetween black and white.*An image that has a low tonal range can be high incontrast. The less tone in an image the more contrast it has.*In a colour image, contrast can arise when there are notmany colours present in the image.*The use of contrast can create a sense of harshness,and can make an image appear bold and graphic.
  5. 5. Shape*Shape is an area enclosed by linesor curves. It can be geometric or organic. A shapeautomatically creates a negative space around it.*Shapes can be familiar for instance circles, triangles andrectangles.*Shapes can be used to create pattern and provide the viewerwith a sense of harmony.
  6. 6. Form*Form can be created by forming two or more shapes. Form isconsidered three dimensional showing height, width anddepth.*Tone is often presented when looking at an image displayingform. Form assists increating realism within a photographic image.
  7. 7. Texture*Texture refers to the surface of the way in which somethinglooks an feels. You can detect texture with your five senses.*Texture can enhance the visual appeal of an image, byenhancing tactile qualities as well as creating realism and asense of three dimensionality.*Some examples include prickly grass sheets on a wall, whiterocky pebbles imbedded in concrete, scaly and dry snake skin.
  8. 8. Colour*Colour is the most expensive element of art and is seen bythe way light reflects off a surface.*Colour is used to create illusion, depth, and appeal to visualsenses.*Cooler colours recede ( go back in to the distance) andwarmer colours advance (come forward)
  9. 9. Colour*Colour can be used to draw the attention to parts of theimage and can be used to create visual harmony.*Colours can also be contrasting within an image whichcan often create added interest* Black and white are not colours but are consideredshades
  10. 10. Colour Harmony/Unity
  11. 11. Colour Harmony/Unity
  12. 12. Contrasting Colours
  13. 13. Colour* There are three four terms that we associate withcolourHue: The pure or true colour, Red/Blue/Green/Yelloware all huesTint: A tint is a hue with added white to lighten itShade: A shade is a hue with added black to darken itSaturation: Saturation intensifies or dilutes a hue
  14. 14. Colour Wheel
  15. 15. ColourColours can have a variety of relationships*Warm Colours (Advancing colours)Includes yellows, oranges. reds*Cool Colours (Receding colours)Includes blues, greens, purplesWarm & Cool colours appeal to human emotions
  16. 16. Colours that recede and advance
  17. 17. ColourPrimary Colours (Colours that can not be achieved by mixingcolours)Are Red, Blue, and YellowSecondary colours (Colours that are made by mixing twoprimary colours together)Are Orange, Green, PurpleAnalogous Colours (Help us relate similar colours). They arenext to each other on the colour wheel. There are three ormore colours in an analogous run.For instance Purple, pink, and red
  18. 18. Analogous Run
  19. 19. Analogous Warm Colours
  20. 20. Analogous cool colours
  21. 21. ColourMonochromatic Colours ( Monochromatic schemes have onlyone colour) In Greek Mono means only one and chromameans colour.For instance yellowAchromatic colours ( Achromatic colour schemes onlyinclude, black, whites or greys. In greek A means none andchroma means colour.For instance an image made up of Greys, Dark Greys, Blacksand Whites and Light Greys
  22. 22. Monochromatic Colour
  23. 23. Achromatic photograph
  24. 24. Design PrinciplesThe Design Elements form the basic vocabulary ofVisual Design. They create interest through an image bycreating focal points to draw your eye to.We think of the elements as the basic visual material withwhich to make art.
  25. 25. SymmetryThe concept of symmetry is related to visual balance in art.Symmetry occurs when an image is split in to two and bothhalves are identical. Symmetry presents a mirror image.For example a butterfly has symmetry or is symmetrical,because one wing matches the other.Symmetry is designed to create a visual sense of balancewithin an image.
  26. 26. AsymmetryAsymmetry occurs when an image is split in to two and bothhalves are not identical. When an image is not the same onboth sides it is said to be asymmetrical, because on half of theimage does not present a mirror image of the other half.Asymmetry is designed to create a visual interest and variety.It can often cause an image to appear imbalanced.Asymmetry can also create a juxtaposition of objects withinthe frame pitting one side against the other.
  27. 27. FramingFraming is a technique used to bring the viewers eye to apoint of interest, also known as the focal point.It involves the idea of composing your subject with a framearound it. A photographic frame is something that acts as aborder or frame for your subject.The use of framing can also create perspective and depth.An example of framing would be a subject standing in adoorway. The doorway would be acting like a frame to thesubject.
  28. 28. CroppingThe idea of cropping is to focus in on an area. An image canoften be filed with objects that are unimportant to the overallmessage or meaning of the image.In order to simplify the photograph open format cropping canbe used..This can be effective when creating portraits as it can oftenprovide a closer and much more intimate view of the subject.Overall cropping provides an intensified and much closerpoint of view.
  29. 29. Repetition/RhythmRepetition and rhythm are the repeating parts within a design,such as shapes colours or lines. Repetition involves usingsimilar things over and over again.Rhythm on the other hand uses repetition to create a pattern.Repetition and rhythm are just as important to art as they areto music. Repetition is like the beat and Rhythm is like themelody. Our ears pick out the beat but follow the melody.Repetition can create reinforcement within a image whilstrhythm can create a flow, and allow your eyes to be guided byit.
  30. 30. CompositionThe term composition refers to the way in which theelements and principles are arranged within the frame.Think of a landscape photograph as a jig saw puzzle,with dozens of different pieces demanding your attention.If you arrange all those pieces in the right order youllend up with an organised, structured image that makessense and looks good. But if you put them together inany old way it will look like a muddled mess, and willbecome difficult to make sense of.
  31. 31. CompositionComposition is all about arranging the elements of ascene in your cameras viewfinder so they formsomething visually interesting to look at.Every time you raise the camera to your eye you arecomposing a picture the very act of deciding aboutwhat you want to include and what to exclude in thepicture. As a photographer take the time to think aboutthe composition before shooting away.
  32. 32. Think about your composition
  33. 33. Compositional StructuresCompositional structures help create a sense of orderwithin your images.There are generally three compositional structures thatmake up most of the images we see in the media. 1.CENTRAL COMPOSITION 2.RULE OF THIRDS 3. GOLDEN SECTION
  34. 34. Central CompositionPlacing an object in the centre of the frame is perhaps themost powerful compositional structure.Central composition is said to have the most visualimpact when looking at a photograph because all thefocus is drawn in to the centre of the frame.Having an object placed in the centre of the framedemands the viewers attention and is the strongestcompositional structure.
  35. 35. Rule of thirdsThe rule of thirds is one of the most popular rules inphotography.Imaginary lines are drawn dividing the image into thirdsboth horizontally and vertically. You place importantelements of your composition where these lines intersect.The main focal point can be placed within one or more ofthe intersect points. However if one object is placedwithin every intersect point it then creates centralcomposition.
  36. 36. Golden SectionThis refers to the ratio of 5:8 within an image. Thisoften applies to landscape, where there is a smallerportion of land to sky within an image or vice versa.This compositional structure is said to appear to theviewer as peaceful and does not tend to challenge theviewer when viewing the image.
  37. 37. Major Practical Assignment