phosphorus cycle.ppt

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    The Phosphorus Cycle

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    Basic Chemistry

    Essential element of life

    Phosphorus is a Group 15 (5A)

    element Symbol: P

    Atomic number: 15

    Atomic mass: 30.974 Color: colorless/ red/ silvery white

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    Basic Chemistry continued

    Nonmetal

    Density: 1823 kg/m3

    Atomic radius: 100 pm

    Solid

    Melting Point: 317.3 K

    Boiling Point: 550 K

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    Basic Chemistry continued

    Key ingredient to plants fertilizers

    In nature, Phosphorus exists inform of Phosphate

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    Basic Chemistry, cont.

    Formulas of rocks containingphosphate are fluoroapatite

    (3Ca3(PO4)2.CaF2),chloroapaptite,(3Ca3(PO4)2.CaCl2), andhydroxyapatite(3Ca3(PO4)2.Ca(OH)2)

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    http://www.chemicalelements.com/elements/p.htmlhttp://www.chemicalelements.com/elements/p.html
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    Description of Phosphorus

    Most common form of phosphorus isred and white.

    Both are tetrahedral groups of four

    atoms.White phosphorus burns on contact

    with air and can change into red

    phosphorus when exposed to light orheat.

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    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:P%2C15.jpg
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    http://www.chemsoc.org/viselements/hires/phosphorus_2.jpg
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    Description of Phosphorus Cont.

    White phosphorus has twomodifications.

    Ordinary phosphorus is waxy

    white solid.

    When pure it is colorless and

    transparent.

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    Description, Cont.

    Pure phosphorus is insoluble in

    water but soluble in carbon

    disulphideCatches fire spontaneously in air.

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    Background

    Very poisonousNever found in free nature

    Essential ingredient of all cell

    protoplasm, nervous tissue, and bones

    Most commonly found as phosphates

    Part of DNA materials and energydistribution

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    Uses of Phosphorus

    Used to make waterproof matches,pyrotechnics, smoke screens, tracer

    bullets, and incendiary shells.

    Used in fertilizer

    Used to produce special glasses,

    for example sodium lamps

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    Uses, continued

    Calcium Phosphate is used to createfine Chinaware

    Monocalcium Phosphate used to

    make baking powderUsed in making steel, and Phosphor

    Bronze

    Na3PO4 is used as a cleaning agent,water softener, and also preventscorrosion in pipes

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    Hazards and Risks

    Severely toxic

    White form is more toxic than red form

    Chronic poisoning leads to necrosis ofjaw (phossy-jaw)

    Phosphate pollution comes from

    detergents, insecticides, and fertilizers

    Inorganic phosphorus is harmless

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    Background

    The phosphorus cycle does not

    have a gas phase, but small

    amounts of phosphoric acid riseinto the atmosphere, contributing

    to acidic precipitation.

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    Background

    The water, carbon, and sulfurcycles all include at least one phase

    in which the element is in its

    gaseous state. The largest reservoir

    of phosphorus is in sedimentary

    rock.

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    http://www.chemsoc.org/viselements/pages/data/phosphorus_data.html
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    The Cycle

    http://www.bio.miami.edu/dana/%20160/phosphoruscycle.gifhttp://www.bio.miami.edu/dana/%20160/phosphoruscycle.gif
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    Description of Cycle

    Simplest of the cycles

    Phosphorus has only one form

    phosphate

    Always part of an organism,

    dissolved in water, or in the formof rock

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    Description of Cycle

    Phosphorus enters environmentfrom rocks or deposits

    Apatite is the phosphate rock

    where phosphate is availableWeathering and erosion releasesphosphate ions that are soluble inwater

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    http://soils1.cses.vt.edu/ch/biol_4684/Cycles/Pcycle.html
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    Description, cont.

    Phosphate then acts as fertilizers ornutrients for land plants

    It gets incorporated into moleculesessential for life like ATP,adenosine triphosphatethis is

    important in storage and use ofenergy

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    Description, cont.

    Phosphate is in backbone of DNA

    and RNA

    When animals and plants die,phosphates will return to the soils

    or oceans again during decay

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    Description, cont.

    Phosphorus cycles through plantsand animals much faster than it

    does through rocks and sediments..A lot of phosphate goes into the

    water from erosion and leaching

    Water plants use this phosphate asnutrients

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    Description, cont.

    Phosphate is the limiting agent in

    growth of plants and algae

    If there is a lack of phosphate,plants grow slowly or are stunted

    If too much, excess growth mayoccur

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    Description, cont.

    Phosphate in water is precipitated from

    water as ion phosphate (insoluble)

    Phosphate in shallow sediment may berecycled into water

    In deep sediment in water, it is

    available as part of as part of rockformations for cycle to repeat

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    Description, cont.

    After that, phosphorus will end upin sediments or rock formations

    again, remaining there for millionsof years.

    Eventually, phosphorus is released

    again through weathering and thecycle starts over.

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    http://www.elmhurst.edu/~chm/vchembook/308phosphorus.html
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    http://www.elmhurst.edu/~chm/onlcourse/chm110/outlines/images/phosphateag.GIF
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    Human Influences on Cycle

    Human influences on phosphatecycle mostly comes from

    introduction & use of commercialsynthetic fertilizers.

    Phosphate obtained by mining at

    certain deposits of calciumphosphate called apatite.

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    Influences cont.

    Phosphate rock and sulfuric acid

    are combined to make a fertilizer

    called super phosphate.There are many negative effects of

    using this fertilizer.

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    Influences cont.

    A lot of the fertilizer is lost through

    the water run-off because plants

    arent able to use up all of it.Eventually the wasted phosphate in

    the water is precipitated as it settles

    at the bottom of the body of water.

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    Influences cont.

    In some lakes & ponds the

    phosphate can be recycled as a

    problem nutrient.Other sources of phosphate are in

    out flows from local sewage

    treatment plans.

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    http://www.theodoregray.com/PeriodicTable/Tiles/015/s8.JPGhttp://www.webelements.com/webelements/elements/text/P/key.html
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    Interesting Facts

    Originally, phosphorus was

    extracted from urine.

    Highly energy intensive.

    Gr. phosphoros, meaning light

    bearer

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    Facts, cont.

    In 1669, German alchemist Henning

    Brand discovered phosphorus from a

    preparation from urine. The only correct spelling of the

    element is phosphorus. There does

    exist a word phosphorous, but it is theadjectival form for the smaller valency

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    Bibliography

    Nutrient Cycling in Ecosystems.

    http://home.earthlink.net/~dayvdan

    ls/ecosys4.htm 17 September 2004Phosphorus.

    http://pearl1.lanl.gov/periodic/elem

    ents/15.html 17 September 2004

    http://home.earthlink.net/~dayvdanls/ecosys4.htmhttp://home.earthlink.net/~dayvdanls/ecosys4.htmhttp://pearl1.lanl.gov/periodic/elements/15.htmlhttp://pearl1.lanl.gov/periodic/elements/15.htmlhttp://pearl1.lanl.gov/periodic/elements/15.htmlhttp://pearl1.lanl.gov/periodic/elements/15.htmlhttp://home.earthlink.net/~dayvdanls/ecosys4.htmhttp://home.earthlink.net/~dayvdanls/ecosys4.htm
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    Bibliography cont.

    Web-Elements.http://www.webelements.com/webelements/elements/text/P/key.html 17

    September 2004 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Phosphoru

    s 17 September 2004

    Virtual Chembook.http://www.elmhurst.edu/~chm/vchembook/308phosphorus.html 17September 2004

    http://www.webelements.com/webelements/elements/te

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