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  • Azonosító szám: TÁMOP-4.1.2.A/1-11/1-2011-0016

    1

    Pharmaceutical Chemistry I – Laboratory Experiments and

    Commentary Attila Almási – Zsuzsanna Rozmer – Pál Perjési

    “Development of digital learning materials for renewable pharmaceutical practice-oriented skills

    in English and Hungarian. Preparing university lecturers for educational challenges of the 21st century.”

    Identification number: TÁMOP-4.1.2.A/1-11/1-2011-0016

    University of Pécs – Pécs, 2014

    © Attila Almási, Zsuzsanna Rozmer, Pál Perjési, 2014

    The project is funded by the European Union and co-financed by the European Social Fund.

  • Pharmaceutical Chemistry I – Laboratory Experiments and Commentary

    2 The project is supported by the European Union and co-financed by the European Social Fund

    Manuscript completed: March 2014

    Editor in charge: University of Pécs

    Editor in charge: Pál Perjési

    Other developers: Zsuzsanna Erdős-Moravecz

    Technical editor: Zsolt Bencze and Zsuzsanna Erdős-Moravecz

    Lector: László Lázár

    Lanquage editor: György Miskei

    ISBN: 978-963-642-617-0

    Length: 179 pages

    The project is supported by the European Union and co-financed by the European Social Fund.

  • Contents

    Identification number: TÁMOP-4.1.2.A/1-11/1-2011-0016

    3

    Contents

    LIST OF FIGURES ........................................................................................................ 7 PREFACE ........................................................................................................................ 9 I LABORATORY SAFETY AND ACCIDENT PROTECTION ........................ 10

    I.1 LABORATORY SAFETY GUIDELINES ............................................................... 10

    I.1.1 Laboratory safety ........................................................................... 10 I.1.2 Accident prevention, fire safety and first aid ................................. 12

    II UNITS OF MEASUREMENTS ........................................................................... 14 III CHEMICAL NOMENCLATURE ....................................................................... 17

    III.1 CLASSIFICATION OF MATTER ......................................................................... 17

    III.2 ELEMENTS..................................................................................................... 18

    III.3 COMPOUNDS ................................................................................................. 20

    III.4 NAMING COMPOUNDS ................................................................................... 21

    III.4.1 Naming ions ................................................................................... 22 III.4.2 Naming acids ................................................................................. 25 III.4.3 Naming functional derivatives of acids ......................................... 26 III.4.4 Naming bases ................................................................................. 27 III.4.5 Coordination compounds ............................................................... 27 III.4.6 Addition compounds ...................................................................... 29

    III.5 PHARMACOPOEIA NOMENCLATURE ............................................................... 29

    III.5.1 Inorganic compounds - Nomenclature in adjective case ............... 30 III.5.2 Inorganic compounds - Nomenclature of genitive case ................ 32 III.5.3 Nomenclature of organic compounds ............................................ 34

    IV PHARMACOPOEIA (PH. HG. VIII.) TEST METHODS ................................ 36 IV.1 PHYSICAL AND PHYSICOCHEMICAL METHODS ............................................... 36

    IV.1.1 Clarity and degree of opalescence of liquids (Ph. Hg. VIII.) .............................................................................................. 36

    IV.1.2 Degree of coloration of liquids (Ph. Hg. VIII.) ............................. 36 IV.1.3 Dissolution ..................................................................................... 36 IV.1.4 Melting point determination .......................................................... 37 IV.1.5 Distillation range ........................................................................... 42 IV.1.6 Warming and boiling ..................................................................... 44 IV.1.7 Measurement of density ................................................................. 46

    IV.2 IDENTIFICATION ...................................................................................... 51

    IV.2.1 Identification reactions of ions (Ph. Eur. 6.0/Ph. Hg. VIII.) (Selection) ............................................................................ 51

    IV.2.2 Identification reactions of functional groups (Ph.Eur.6.0./Ph.Hg.VIII.) (Selection) ............................................ 55

    IV.3 LIMIT TESTS (PH. EUR. 6.0/PH. HG. VIII.) ................................................ 58

  • Pharmaceutical Chemistry I – Laboratory Experiments and Commentary

    4 The project is supported by the European Union and co-financed by the European Social Fund

    V PHARMACOPEIAL QUALIFICATION OF INORGANIC SUBSTANCES (SELECTION) ............................................................................. 64 V.1 HALOGENS .................................................................................................... 64

    V.2 OXYGEN GROUP............................................................................................. 66

    V.3 NITROGEN GROUP .......................................................................................... 69

    V.4 CARBON GROUP ............................................................................................. 72

    V.5 BORON GROUP ............................................................................................... 74

    V.6 ALKALINE EARTH METALS ............................................................................. 77

    V.7 ALKALINE METALS ........................................................................................ 80

    VI GENERAL CHARACTERISATION OF ORGANIC COMPOUNDS, PRINCIPLES OF PHARMACEUTICAL INVESTIGATION OF ORGANIC DRUG COMPOUNDS .............................. 81 VI.1 HYDROCARBONS ........................................................................................... 81

    VI.1.1 Aliphatic, saturated hydrocarbons .................................................. 81 VI.1.2 Cyclic, saturated hydrocarbons ...................................................... 86 VI.1.3 Aliphatic, unsaturated hydrocarbons .............................................. 88 VI.1.4 Aromatic hydrocarbons .................................................................. 90

    VI.2 HALOGENO ALKANES .................................................................................... 93

    VI.3 ALCOHOLS AND PHENOLS .............................................................................. 99

    VI.3.1 Alcohols ......................................................................................... 99 VI.3.2 Polyalcohols ................................................................................. 101 VI.3.3 Phenols ......................................................................................... 103 VI.3.4 Therapeutical application of alcohols and phenols ...................... 107 VI.3.5 Pharmacopoeial qualifications ..................................................... 107

    VI.4 ALDEHYDES AND KETONES.......................................................................... 112

    VI.4.1 Structure, nomenclature ............................................................... 112 VI.4.2 Properties ...................................................................................... 113 VI.4.3 Reactions ...................................................................................... 114 VI.4.4 Therapeutic applications of aldehydes and ketones ..................... 118 VI.4.5 Pharmacepoial qualifications ....................................................... 119

    VI.5 AMINES ....................................................................................................... 121

    VI.5.1 Classification, nomenclature of amines ....................................... 121 VI.5.2 Structure, properties ..................................................................... 122 VI.5.3 Reactions ...................................................................................... 123 VI.5.4 Important amines .......................................................................... 127 VI.5.5 Pharmacopoeial qualifications ..................................................... 129

    VI.6 CARBOXYLIC ACIDS ..................................................................................... 130

    VI.6.1 Structure, nomenclature ............................................................... 130 VI.6.2 Physical properties ....................................................................... 134 VI.6.3 Derivatives of carboxylic acids .................................................... 136 VI.6.4 Reactions ...................................................................................... 137

  • Contents

    Identification number: TÁMOP-4.1.2.A/1-11/1-2011-0016

    5

    VI.6.5 Important carboxylic acids (Sele

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