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  • PERFORMANCE OF TROPICAL DYE-SENSITIZED SOLAR CELLS

    NURFADZILLAH BINTI ALI

    This report is submitted in partial fulfillment of requirement for the Bachelor of

    Electronic engineering (Industrial Electronics) with Honors

    Faculty of Electronics & Computer Engineering

    University technical Malaysia Melaka

    June 2014

  • ii

  • iii

    “I hereby, declare this report is the result of my own research except as cited

    of the reference”

    Signature : …………………………………………….

    Author Name : NURFADZILLAH BINTI ALI

    Date : ……………………………………………

  • iv

    “I / we acknowledge that I have read this piece in my / our this work is

    sufficient in scope and quality for the award of Bachelor of Electronic Engineering

    (Industrial Electronics) With Honors"

    Signature : ……………………………….

    Name : FAIZ BIN ARITH

    Date : ………………………………..

  • v

    This book dedicated to Mom and Dad.

    Thank you for your love and sacrifice

    ***

  • vi

    ACKNOWLEDGMENT

    Bismillahirahmanirahim.

    Firstly, I would like to thanks Allah Almighty for His blessing for his power

    for me to complete this thesis and my final year project called “Performance of

    Tropical Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells”.

    Furthermore, I would like to take this opportunity to express my deepest

    gratitude to Mr. Faiz b. Arith as my supervisor. His invaluable guidance and full

    support for give knowledge that make this project complete according to planning. I

    appreciate him with unlimited positive advice and helping me in order to understand

    the chemical term for the whole project.

    I would like to express my gratefulness towards my parents Mdm. Rohani bt.

    Abang and Mr. Ali b. Suhaili that always give me the full support and advice until

    completing my Final Year Project. Lastly but not least, my sincerely appreciation

    also extends to all my friends who give encouragement and helping me in completion

    of this project at Universiti Teknikal Malaysia Melaka.

    Thank You.

  • vii

    ABTRACT

    Sunlight possesses generated current and voltage to generate the power

    energy of electricity. Therefore, the fundamental measure from the solar cells

    procedure will be generation of light whereby must regarded how to produced the

    carrier. Dye-sensitized solar cell is known to be the low cost production because of

    the material is easily to get. Dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) is fabricated using the

    screen printing method which Melastoma Malabathricum and Cucurma Longa used

    as the sensitizer of the solar cell. These natural dyes were extracted without addition

    of any chemical because to identify the parameters or the characteristic of the solar

    cell. Plus, the efficiency may affect due to the reaction. Titanium dioxide (TiO2) is

    fabricated on the indium tin oxide glass before applying the sensitizer. The highest

    efficiency is about 0.025% where it is a cucurma longa or turmeric sensitizer with the

    mesh size 200 POL and 1g titanium dioxide viscosity. The value of the Voc is equal

    to 337mV, Isc is equal to 0.0214mA and the fill factor = 0.86. In other hand, this

    report will discussed the comparison with other types of sensitizer such as raspberry

    and dragon fruit.

  • viii

    ABSTRAK

    Cahaya matahari mempunyai arus dan voltan untuk menjana tenaga kuasa

    elektrik. Oleh itu, langkah yang asas dari prosedur sel-sel solar akan menjadi

    generasi cahaya mana mesti dianggap bagaimana untuk dihasilkan pengangkut. Sel

    solar pewarna terpeka dikenali sel solar yang sangat murah dari segi kos pembuatan

    dan pengeluarannya di mana bahan-bahan yang digunakan mudah didapati. Sel solar

    pewarna terpeka (DSSC) menggunakan kaedah percetakan skrin di mana Melastoma

    malabathricum dan Cucurma longa digunakan sebagai pemeka sel solar. Pewarna

    semula jadi ini digunakan tanpa campuran sebarang bahan kimia kerana untuk

    mengenal pasti parameter atau ciri sel solar secara semulajadi. Tambahan pula,

    kecekapan boleh terjejas disebabkan tindak balas kimia. Titanium dioksida (TiO2)

    dilapiskan di atas kaca oksida timah indium sebelum meletakkan pemeka itu.

    Kecekapan paling tinggi adalah lebih kurang 0.025% di mana ia hasil daripada tindak

    balas pemeka Cucurma longa atau kunyit dengan saiz mesh 200 POL dan 1g

    kelikatan titanium dioksida. Nilai Voc=337mV, Isc = 0.0214mA dan fill factor =

    0.86. Selain daripada itu, perbandingan dengan pemeka yang lain seperti buah rasberi

    dan juga buah naga akan turut dibincangkan dalam laporan ini.

  • ix

    TABLE OF CONTENT

    CHAPTER TITLE PAGE DECLARATION ii

    DEDICATION v

    ACKNOWLEDGEMENT vi

    ABSTRACT vii

    ABSTRAK viii

    TABLE OF CONTENT ix

    LIST OF FIGURES xi

    LIST OF TABLES xii

    LIST OF ABBREVIATION xiii

    I INTRODUCTION 1 1.1 Introduction 1

    1.2 Objective 5

    1.3 Problem statement 5

    1.4 Scope 6

    1.5 Brief methodology 6

    II LITERATURE REVIEW 7 2.1 Overview 7

    2.2 Working Principle 7

    2.3 Brief History 8

    2.4 Generation 9

    2.5 Feasibility study 10

  • x

    III METHODOLOGY 19 3.1 Overview 19

    3.2 Safety 19

    3.2.1 Personal Protective Equipment 19

    3.2.2 Chemical Safety 21

    3.3 Natural Dye Sensitizer 23

    3.4 Equipments 24

    3.5 Types of Deposition 28

    3.6 Procedures 29

    3.6.1 Preparing TiO2 Glass 29

    3.6.2 Identify Conductivity 30

    3.6.3 TiO2 Mixture and Carbon Soot 31

    3.6.4 Deposit TiO2 and Annealing 32

    3.6.5 Deposit Dye Sensitizer 35

    3.6.6 Check Connectivity 36

    3.7 Air Mass 37

    IV RESULTS AND DISCUSSION 40 4.1 Overview 40

    4.2 Results 40

    4.2.1 Comparison on Two Types of Dyes 41

    4.3 Analysis 41

    4.3.1 X-ray Diffraction (XRD) 42

    4.3.2 I-V Characteristic 43

    4.3.3 Calculation 44

    4.4 Discussion 47

    V CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION 49 5.1 Conclusion Project 49

    5.2 Recommendation 50

    REFERENCES 52

  • xi

    LIST OF FIGURE

    FIGURE TITLE PAGES 1.1 Example of renewable energy 2

    1.2 Three types of common thin film solar energy 3

    1.3 Flexible dye-sensitized solar cell 4

    2.1 Chemical reaction 7

    2.2 Electrolysis 8

    2.3 Black silicon-based solar cell 9

    2.4 First Solar CdTe solar cell 9

    2.5 Dye-sensitized solar cell 10

    2.6 Basic molecule structure of anthocyanin and the binding with

    TiO2 11

    2.7 Structure of Curcumin a) Keto form b) enol form 12

    2.8 Efficiency reported by NREL 15

    2.9 UV-vis absorption spectra of (A) flowery knotweed (B)

    begonis, and (C) perilla in ethanol solution 17

    3.1 Safety goggles 20

    3.2 Face mask 20

    3.3 Safety gloves 21

    3.4 Hazard sign 21

    3.5 Corrosive 22

    3.6 Flammable 22

    3.7 Toxic 23

    3.8 Melastoma malabathricum 23

    3.9 Cucurma longa 24

    3.10 Chemical fluid, (a) acetone (b) ethanol (c) Distil water 24

    3.11 (a) Iodine crystal (b) Potassium iodide (c) Titanium dioxide 25

    3.12 Indium tin-oxide 25

  • xii

    3.13 Diamond glass cutter 26

    3.14 Tweezers 26

    3.15 Pipette 27

    3.16 Schematic representations of eight CdTe thin-film deposition

    techniques 28

    3.17 Ultrasonic bath 29

    3.18 Cleaning process 29

    3.19 Dry using nitrogen gas 30

    3.20 Indium tin oxide coated glass slide 30

    3.21 Titanium dioxide paste 31

    3.22 Carbon soot 32

    3.23 Screen printing table 32

    3.24 Screen printing process 33

    3.25 Deposited TiO2 34

    3.26 Heating on the hotplate 34

    3.27 Applying sensitizer 35

    3.28 Single cell of dye-sensitized solar cell 36

    3.29 Measure the connectivity 36

    3.30 Air mass 37

    4.1 Dye-sensitized solar cell (a) anode (b) cathode 40

    4.2 XRD machine 42

    4.3 “Anatomy” of XRD pattern 42

    4.4 XRD analysis 43

    4.5 I-V Characteristic 43

    4.6 Connection to measured current and voltage 47

    5.1 Portable charger 50

    5.2 Safety label 51

  • xiii

    LIST OF TABLE

    TABLE TITLE PAGES

    2.1 Best research-cell efficiencies as of 2012/5, compiled from

    National Renewable Energy Laboratory’s chart of best

    research-cell efficiencies 13

    4.1 Comparison between Turmeric and Shrub 41

    4.2 Fill factor and Efficiency 46

    4.3 Comparison between three types of sensitizer 48

  • xiv

    LIST OF ABBREVIATION

    CdT

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