Pedagogical well-being: reflecting learning and well-being in teachers' work

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<ul><li><p>This article was downloaded by: [University of Strathclyde]On: 04 October 2014, At: 18:19Publisher: RoutledgeInforma Ltd Registered in England and Wales Registered Number: 1072954 Registeredoffice: Mortimer House, 37-41 Mortimer Street, London W1T 3JH, UK</p><p>Teachers and Teaching: theory andpracticePublication details, including instructions for authors andsubscription information:http://www.tandfonline.com/loi/ctat20</p><p>Pedagogical wellbeing: reflectinglearning and wellbeing in teachersworkTiina Soini a , Kirsi Pyhlt b &amp; Janne Pietarinen ca Department of Teacher Education , University of Tampere ,Tampere, Finlandb Centre for Research and Development in Higher Education ,University of Helsinki , Helsinki, Finlandc Faculty of Education , University of Joensuu , Joensuu, FinlandPublished online: 11 Oct 2010.</p><p>To cite this article: Tiina Soini , Kirsi Pyhlt &amp; Janne Pietarinen (2010) Pedagogical wellbeing:reflecting learning and wellbeing in teachers work, Teachers and Teaching: theory and practice,16:6, 735-751</p><p>To link to this article: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/13540602.2010.517690</p><p>PLEASE SCROLL DOWN FOR ARTICLE</p><p>Taylor &amp; Francis makes every effort to ensure the accuracy of all the information (theContent) contained in the publications on our platform. However, Taylor &amp; Francis,our agents, and our licensors make no representations or warranties whatsoever as tothe accuracy, completeness, or suitability for any purpose of the Content. Any opinionsand views expressed in this publication are the opinions and views of the authors,and are not the views of or endorsed by Taylor &amp; Francis. The accuracy of the Contentshould not be relied upon and should be independently verified with primary sourcesof information. Taylor and Francis shall not be liable for any losses, actions, claims,proceedings, demands, costs, expenses, damages, and other liabilities whatsoeveror howsoever caused arising directly or indirectly in connection with, in relation to orarising out of the use of the Content.</p><p>This article may be used for research, teaching, and private study purposes. Anysubstantial or systematic reproduction, redistribution, reselling, loan, sub-licensing,systematic supply, or distribution in any form to anyone is expressly forbidden. Terms &amp;</p><p>http://www.tandfonline.com/loi/ctat20http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/13540602.2010.517690</p></li><li><p>Conditions of access and use can be found at http://www.tandfonline.com/page/terms-and-conditions</p><p>Dow</p><p>nloa</p><p>ded </p><p>by [</p><p>Uni</p><p>vers</p><p>ity o</p><p>f St</p><p>rath</p><p>clyd</p><p>e] a</p><p>t 18:</p><p>19 0</p><p>4 O</p><p>ctob</p><p>er 2</p><p>014 </p><p>http://www.tandfonline.com/page/terms-and-conditionshttp://www.tandfonline.com/page/terms-and-conditions</p></li><li><p>Teachers and Teaching: theory and practiceVol. 16, No. 6, December 2010, 735751</p><p>ISSN 1354-0602 print/ISSN 1470-1278 online 2010 Taylor &amp; FrancisDOI: 10.1080/13540602.2010.517690http://www.informaworld.com</p><p>Pedagogical well-being: reflecting learning and well-being in teachers work</p><p>Tiina Soinia*, Kirsi Pyhltb and Janne Pietarinenc</p><p>aDepartment of Teacher Education, University of Tampere, Tampere, Finland; bCentre for Research and Development in Higher Education, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland; cFaculty of Education, University of Joensuu, Joensuu, FinlandTaylor and FrancisCTAT_A_517690.sgm(Received 8 October 2008; final version received 22 January 2010)10.1080/13540602.2010.517690Teachers and Teaching: Theory and Practice1354-0602 (print)/1470-1278 (online)Original Article2010Taylor &amp; Francis166000000December 2010Dr TiinaSoinitiina.soini@uta.fi</p><p>Teachers learning and occupational well-being is crucial in attaining educationalgoals both in the classroom and at the school community level. In this articleteachers occupational well-being that is constructed in teachinglearningprocesses within the school community is referred to as pedagogical well-being.The article focuses on exploring teachers experienced pedagogical well-being byexamining the kinds of situations that teachers themselves find either empoweringand engaging or burdening and stressful in their work. The study aims to: (1)identify the primary contexts of teachers experienced critical incidents ofpedagogical well-being; and (2) determine the kind of action strategies teachershave adopted in these contexts when they are reported as empowering andengaging. The study included data collected from the teachers of nine case-schoolsaround Finland. Altogether, a selected group of 68 comprehensive school teachers,including both primary and secondary school teachers, were interviewed. Ourresults suggested that interaction with pupils in socially and pedagogicallychallenging situations constitutes the core of teachers pedagogical well-being.Success in both the pedagogical goals and more general social goals seem to befundamental preconditions for teachers experienced pedagogical well-being.Further investigation showed that teachers approaches to socially challengingsituations varied. Results suggest that teachers pedagogical well-being iscentrally generated in the challenging social interactions of their work. Moreover,the way in which a teacher acts in the situation is found to be a regulator forexperienced pedagogical well-being.</p><p>Keywords: occupational well-being; learning; comprehensive school; teachers</p><p>1. Introduction</p><p>Teachers learning and occupational well-being is crucial in attaining educationalgoals both in the classroom and at the school community level. This means that teach-ers occupational well-being is closely entwined with the success of their pedagogicaltask, which in turn is linked to the ability of the teacher and the teacher community todevelop and revise their pedagogical actions. More specifically, skillful and motivatedteachers are likely to promote active and functional learning strategies, and conse-quently achieve the best learning outcome on pupils (Bolhuis &amp; Voeten, 2004;Hoekstra, Beijaard, Brekelmans, &amp; Korthagen, 2007; Hoy, Hoy, &amp; Kurz, 2008). In</p><p>*Corresponding author. Email: tiina.soini@uta.fi</p><p>Dow</p><p>nloa</p><p>ded </p><p>by [</p><p>Uni</p><p>vers</p><p>ity o</p><p>f St</p><p>rath</p><p>clyd</p><p>e] a</p><p>t 18:</p><p>19 0</p><p>4 O</p><p>ctob</p><p>er 2</p><p>014 </p></li><li><p>736 T. Soini et al.</p><p>addition, empowered and engaged teachers are also more likely to implement peda-gogical innovations in their daily work. Research on teachers instructional practiceshave shown that teachers self-efficacy, emotional involvement, motivational struc-ture, and work engagement are interrelated and have an effect on the practices teachersadopt (Butler &amp; Shibaz, 2008; Pelletier, Legault, &amp; Sguin-Lvesque, 2002; Ryan,Gheen, &amp; Midgley, 1998). This, in turn, affects the goals and strategies adopted by thepupils, such as help seeking. Yet, very little is known about how teachers themselvesperceive the main sources of inspiration and burden in their everyday work. In thisarticle, teachers occupational well-being that is constructed in teachinglearningprocesses within the school community is referred to as pedagogical well-being. Thearticle focuses on exploring teachers experienced pedagogical well-being in ninedifferent comprehensive schools in Finland.</p><p>1.1. Aim of the study</p><p>This study aims to gain better understanding of Finnish comprehensive school teach-ers pedagogical well-being by examining the kinds of situations that teachers them-selves find either empowering and engaging or burdening and stressful in their work.These situations are seen as critical incidents in which the constructed pedagogicalwell-being becomes observable. Teachers pedagogical well-being is empiricallyexamined in two complementary aspects: (1) identifying the primary contexts ofteachers experienced critical incidents of pedagogical well-being; and (2) determin-ing the kind of action strategies teachers have adopted in these contexts when they arereported as empowering and engaging.</p><p>1.2. The study context</p><p>This study is a part of a larger national research project: Learning and developmentin comprehensive school (20042009), which focuses on undivided basic educationin Finland. The project aims to identify and understand preconditions for successfulschool reforms. Altogether 87 municipalities and 237 schools around Finland partici-pated in the first phase of the research project (20052007). The project was carriedout using a systemic design research approach (Brown, 1992; Collins, Joseph, &amp;Bielaczyc, 2004; De Corte, 2000; Salomon, 1996). It included data collection from fourdifferent levels of the schooling system: (1) heads of school districts; (2) principals;(3) teachers; and (4) pupils (9th graders). To capture the views of different actors, thedata were collected through mixed methods such as inquiries, interviews, reflectivediscussion, and activating methods.</p><p>1.3. Learning of socio-psychological well-being in school</p><p>In addition to the intended learning outcomes, the pedagogical processes within schoolcommunities can generate either feelings of engagement and empowerment and a senseof satisfaction or feelings of stress and anxiety for the participants of the processes(Boekaerts, 1993; Konu, Lintonen, &amp; Autio, 2002; Krapp, 2005; Pelletier et. al., 2002;Savolainen, 2001; Silins &amp; Mulford, 2002; Tarter &amp; Hoy, 2004; Van Houtte, 2006).Construction of socio-psychological well-being for members of the school communitycan be understood as a learning process that promotes relatedness, competence, and</p><p>Dow</p><p>nloa</p><p>ded </p><p>by [</p><p>Uni</p><p>vers</p><p>ity o</p><p>f St</p><p>rath</p><p>clyd</p><p>e] a</p><p>t 18:</p><p>19 0</p><p>4 O</p><p>ctob</p><p>er 2</p><p>014 </p></li><li><p>Teachers and Teaching: theory and practice 737</p><p>autonomy (e.g., Deci &amp; Ryan, 2002; Hakanen, Bakker, &amp; Schaufeli, 2005;Hakkarainen, Palonen, Paavola, &amp; Lehtinen, 2004; Krapp, 2005; Lazarus &amp; Lazarus,1994; Seligman &amp; Csikszentmihalyi, 2000; Sheldon &amp; King, 2001). Learning of socio-psychological well-being within school can be seen as an active, collaborative, andsituated process in which the relationship between individuals and their environmentis constantly constructed and modified. In turn, well-being experienced by themembers of the school community regulates their learning in many ways, for example,it can affect the ability to concentrate and observe the environment, perceive affor-dances, and interpret received feedback (Antonovsky, 1987, 1993; Bowen, Richman,Brewster, &amp; Bowen, 1998; Deci &amp; Ryan, 2002; Kristersson &amp; hlund, 2005; Morrison&amp; Clift, 2005; Pallant &amp; Lae, 2002; Ryan &amp; Deci, 2001; Torsheim, Aar, &amp; Wold,2001). Hence, teachers sense of engagement and empowerment in their work areregulated by their experienced professional relationships (including relationships withpupils), belonging to the professional community, professional self-efficacy andperceived control and agency over ones professional action.</p><p>The quality of pedagogical processes in school can be assessed by examining towhat extent they facilitate the preconditions for learning and well-being both for pupilsand teachers (Butler &amp; Shibaz, 2008; Retelsdorf, Butler, Streblow, &amp; Schiefele, 2010).However, well-being perceived by the members of a school community is often gener-ated as an unintended by-product of pedagogical processes and school practices. Asense of autonomy, relatedness, competence, and belonging or a lack of these elementsgenerated for teachers and pupils in the everyday interactions of school are herereferred to as pedagogical well-being. The construction of pedagogical well-beingcould be understood as a process of succeeding cycles of positive or negative learningexperiences leading to empowerment and engagement, or in severely negative cases,even to burnout. Accordingly, pedagogical well-being is constructed in the coreprocesses of teachers work that is, carrying out and developing teachinglearningprocess, including for example planning classroom activities, interacting with pupils,making evaluations, and choosing and developing instructional tools. The experiencedpedagogical well-being may either hinder or promote attainment of the pedagogicalgoals, and it therefore serves as a regulator for attaining learning outcomes.</p><p>1.4. Teachers pedagogical well-being</p><p>Pedagogical well-being is a part of teachers occupational well-being, along withother important elements, such as leadership in the school, continuity, work load, andresources (Merilinen &amp; Pietarinen, 2007; Rudow, 1999). The experienced pedagog-ical well-being may either promote or hinder the teachers occupational well-being. Ateacher may simultaneously experience empowerment, joy, and satisfaction in theirclassroom interactions with pupils along with feelings of anxiety and stress caused byproblems in collaborating with parents. In positive cases the pedagogical well-beinggenerated in the teacher community, for example, may function as a buffer against theburden caused by the unsolved problems that they face with parents. Accordingly,pedagogical well-being could be seen as a crucial asset of teachers work-relatedresilience (e.g., Masten &amp; Reed, 2005). On the other hand in negative cases, the actionorientation and coping strategies adopted by the teachers, such as avoidance or defen-sive strategies, may gradually cause an inability to collaborate with parents that couldhave a severe negative impact on the pupils attitudes towards school as well as theteachers occupational well-being.</p><p>Dow</p><p>nloa</p><p>ded </p><p>by [</p><p>Uni</p><p>vers</p><p>ity o</p><p>f St</p><p>rath</p><p>clyd</p><p>e] a</p><p>t 18:</p><p>19 0</p><p>4 O</p><p>ctob</p><p>er 2</p><p>014 </p></li><li><p>738 T. Soini et al.</p><p>Hence, the ways in which the teacher solves the problematic situation with hercolleagues, pupils or their parents are likely to affect not only the end result of the situ-ation, but also the feedback the teacher receives of themselves as a professional andhence ones self-image as a teacher. This in turn further reflects on pedagogical prac-tices and strategies adopted by the teacher, thus resulting in either positive or negativecycles of experienced pedagogical well-being. Characteristic for the types of pedagog-ical interactions that promote teachers satisfaction, engagement, and empowermentare participants perceptions of themselves as active learners and their experience ofa sense of coherence, meaningfulness, and belonging (Antonovsky, 1987, 1993;Bowen et al., 1998; Deci &amp; Ryan, 2002; Kristersson &amp; hlund, 2005; Morrison &amp; Clift,2005; Pallant &amp; Lae, 2002; Ryan &amp; Deci, 2001; Torsheim et al., 2001). In contrast,lack of professional efficacy, feelings of alienation, and inequality are all typical ofthe interactions that undermine the construction of pedagogical well-being. If theteacher, for example, is feeling emotionally overwhelmed and threatened by misbe-having pupils, she or he is more likely to adopt teacher centered and rigid problem-solving strategies than if she or he feels empowered in their work and appreciatedby the members of the school community. Respectively more flexible and reflectivestrategies may generate feelings of empowerment and support equal and reciprocalprofessional relationships with pupils and other teachers. These kinds of strategies andpractices can be learned.</p><p>1.5. Teachers pedagogical well-being is constructed in complementary contexts</p><p>Teachers pedagogical well-being is...</p></li></ul>

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