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  • ICAO PBN Operational Approval Course

    PBN Operational Approval

    Terminal Navigation Specifications

  • ICAO PBN Operational Approval Course

    Navigation Specifications

    Applicable to terminal area operations • RNAV 1 and RNAV 2

    • RNP 1

    • A-RNP

    • RNP 0.3

  • ICAO PBN Operational Approval Course

    RNAV 1 & 2

    • RNAV 1 and 2 is a single navigation specification • One operational approval only • RNAV 1 and RNAV 2 approval permits operations

    • On both RNAV 1 and RNAV 2 routes

    • Route specification is an ANSP role

    • Dependent upon the coverage of ground aids

    • Not an operational approval consideration

    • RNAV 1 used for SID/STAR • RNAV 2 may be used where navaid coverage is limited

    3

  • ICAO PBN Operational Approval Course

    RNAV 1 and RNAV 2

    4

    • On-board performance monitoring and alerting not req’d

    • Supported by DME/DME, DME/DME/IRU or GNSS

    • Accommodates majority of aircraft

    • Legacy aircraft without GNSS

    • Radar surveillance should be used

    • Due to the lower confidence level

  • ICAO PBN Operational Approval Course

    Migration To RNAV 1

    5

    • RNAV 1 replaces ECAC P-RNAV and US RNAV

    • If operator holds both TGL 10 and FAA AC 90-100 approvals

    • RNAV 1 approval is automatic

    • If operator holds only one approval

    • Minor additional conditions

  • ICAO PBN Operational Approval Course

    European Migration to RNAV 1

    6

  • ICAO PBN Operational Approval Course

    US Migration to RNAV 1

    If operator has AC 90-100A approval, then RNAV 1 compliant.

    7

  • ICAO PBN Operational Approval Course

    RNP 1

    8

    • RNP 1 fundamentally RNAV 1 with GNSS • On-board performance monitoring and alerting req’d

    • GNSS required

    • Limits participation rate to GNSS equipped aircraft • Many States now requiring RNP 1

    • Radar surveillance not required • Increases applicability to any airport

    • RF legs supported in 4th Edition PBN Manual

  • ICAO PBN Operational Approval Course

    RNAV 1 & RNP 1

    NAVIGATION SPECIFICATION

    FLIGHT PHASE

    En Route Oceanic / Remote

    En Route Continental ARR

    APPROACH

    DEP Initial Intermed Final Missed RNAV 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

    A-RNP 2 or 1 1 1 1 0.3 1 1

    RNP 1 1 1 1 1 1

    RNP 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3

    9

    Applicable to SID/STAR and approach up to FAF

  • ICAO PBN Operational Approval Course

    Supported Systems

    • DME/DME

    • DME/DME/IRU

    • GNSS Stand-alone • TSO-C129a

    • TSO-C145()

    • IRS/GNSS • TSO-C129a

    • TSO-C146()

    • GNSS (stand-alone) • TSO-C129a

    • TSO-C145()

    • IRS/GNSS • TSO-C129a

    • TSO-C146()

    RNAV 1 RNP 1

    On-Board Performance Monitoring and Alerting

    10

  • ICAO PBN Operational Approval Course

    Functionality

    System displays

    • Distance and Bearing to active waypoint

    • Groundspeed or time to active waypoint

    • Distance between waypoints

    • Distance to go

    • Active navigation sensor type

    11

  • ICAO PBN Operational Approval Course

    Displays

    • Lateral deviation display scaling automatically compatible with alerting and annunciation limits when implemented

    • Full scale deflection suitable for phase of flight • Course selector automatically slaved to computed path

    unless map shows flight path and deviation

    12

    Applicable to stand-alone GNSS systems in Terminal Mode XTK must be displayed on CDI/HSI in primary field of view

    Terminal mode within 30NM of ARP CDI scaling automatically set to +/- 1NM Alerting automatically set to 1NM HPL

  • ICAO PBN Operational Approval Course

    Alternative Displays

    • FMS systems typically DO NOT incorporate HSI/CDI

    • Navigation Map (ND) may be used

    • Provided equivalent functionality

    • Suitable map scale selected

    • Numerical XTK may be available

    • Navigation display

    • CDU

    • Auto-pilot/FD may be required

    13

  • ICAO PBN Operational Approval Course

    Standard Functionality

    • Navigation database required

    • Procedure loaded by selection from database

    • ‘Direct To’ function

    • Automatic leg sequencing with ‘Fly-By’ or ‘Fly-Over’

    • Automatically execute: • IF, CF, DF, TF

    • Automatically/manually fly: • CA, FM, VA, VI, VM

    • LNAV available no later than 500’ AGL

    14

  • ICAO PBN Operational Approval Course

    Functionality Issues

    • Pilot intervention required where functionality limited

    • Typically when VNAV not integrated – Stand-alone systems

    – Less capable FMS systems

    • Manual intervention may be required to execute – CA, FM, VA, VI, VM

    – Must be covered in operations manual and pilot training

    15

  • ICAO PBN Operational Approval Course

    GNSS Functionality

    • RNAV 1 and RNP 1 using stand-alone GNSS • Complies if operated in Terminal Mode (30NM)

    • Terminal mode cannot be manually selected

    • Dependent on correct flight plan selection

    • If SID/STAR is outside 30NM • Stand-alone GNSS will revert to en-route mode (+/-5NM)

    • Crew must maintain RNAV 1/RNP 1 nav tolerance

    16

    This issue is identified in the RNP 1 NavSpec but is also applicable to RNAV 1 using stand-alone GNSS

  • ICAO PBN Operational Approval Course

    Pre-Flight

    • Check Navaid availability of RNAV 1 without GNSS

    • Check GNSS availability for route if using GNSS • No gaps in availability along route > 5 mins

    • Review contingency procedures

    • File ‘R’ in FPL field 10

    • ‘PBN/D1 to 4’ for RNAV 1 in item 18

    • ‘PBN/O1 to 4’ for RNP 1 in Item 18

    17

    Tip: Probability of gap in 1NM integrity capability with current 31 satellite configuration is remote.

  • ICAO PBN Operational Approval Course

    Flight Plan Item 18 PBN Codes

    • RNAV 1 – D1 – All permitted sensors

    – D2 – GNSS

    – D3 – DME/DME

    – D4 – DME/DME/IRU

    • RNP 1 – O1 – All permitted sensors

    – O2 – GNSS

    – O3 – DME/DME

    – O4 – DME/DME/IRU

    18

    Typical selections: O1 for FMS aircraft with IRS/GNSS

    D4 for classic FMS aircraft without GNSS O2 for stand-alone GNSS

  • ICAO PBN Operational Approval Course

    Operating Procedures (1)

    • Confirm database is current

    • Retrieve procedure from on-board database by name

    • Insertion/removal of waypoints permitted

    • Creation of new waypoints by manual entry NOT permitted • Cross check cleared flight plan with chart

    19

  • ICAO PBN Operational Approval Course

    Operating Procedures (2)

    • Use lateral deviation indicator, flight director and/or autopilot in the LNAV mode

    • Lateral deviation scaling be +/- 1nm (Terminal Mode)

    • Map mode as alternative to deviation indicator

    • Maintain route centreline at all times: • +/- 0.5nm on straight segments

    • Up to +/- 1nm during turn entry/exit

    20

    Note: Unless RF leg is flown, course guidance is not available during turns

  • ICAO PBN Operational Approval Course

    Operating Procedures (3)

    • Prior T/O, verify NAV system: • Correct mode or RNP 1 selected

    • Correct airport, R/W and SID procedure loaded

    • GNSS signal must be acquired before T/O

    • DME/DME/IRU – confirm a/c position within 1000’ (0.17nm) of known position prior to roll

    21

    Caution: Incorrect selection of SID/STAR is a serious safety concern. Attention must be placed on sound crew procedures, particularly where a

    clearance is amended

  • ICAO PBN Operational Approval Course

    Operating Procedures (4)

    • Prior to Arrival, verify NAV system: – Correct mode or RNP 1 selected – Correct airport, R/W and STAR procedure loaded

    • Follow ATC route modifications – Do not cancel procedure – Only insert waypoints from the database if required – Check active waypoint when rejoining procedure after

    radar vectoring

    22

    Caution: Pay special attention to VNAV when re-joining a procedure. Pilots MUST understand VNAV functionality and

    ensure minimum safe altiudes are respected DCT will often negate intermediate altitude restrictions!!!!!!!

  • ICAO PBN Operational Approval Course

    Contingency Procedures

    • Notify ATC of loss of navigation capability

    • Where the contingency procedure requires reversion to a conventional arrival route, necessary prepa

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