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  • Pavement Thickness DesignPavement Thickness Design for Canadian Airports for Canadian Airports

    Leanne Whiteley, B.A.Sc., M.A.Sc.Leanne Whiteley, B.A.Sc., M.A.Sc. Civil EngineeringCivil Engineering

    Susan Tighe, Ph.D., P.Eng.Susan Tighe, Ph.D., P.Eng. Canada Research Chair in Pavement & Infrastructure ManagementCanada Research Chair in Pavement & Infrastructure Management

    and Associate Professor, Department of Civil Engineeringand Associate Professor, Department of Civil Engineering

    University of WaterlooUniversity of Waterloo CPATT SymposiumCPATT Symposium October 13, 2006October 13, 2006

  • IntroductionIntroduction

    Research RationaleResearch Rationale –– Aging airport pavement infrastructureAging airport pavement infrastructure –– Heavier aircraftHeavier aircraft –– International state-of-the-art design programsInternational state-of-the-art design programs

    ScopeScope –– Flexible and rigid airport pavement design methodsFlexible and rigid airport pavement design methods –– Canadian airport dataCanadian airport data

    ObjectivesObjectives –– To determine the sensitivity of the pavement designTo determine the sensitivity of the pavement design

    methods to their input parametersmethods to their input parameters –– To evaluate the Transport Canada design methodTo evaluate the Transport Canada design method

  • MethodologyMethodology Stage 1

    Data Collection

    Stage 2 Data Organization

    Stage 3 Within Program Sensitivity Analysis

    Stage 4 Between Program Data Analysis

    Sources of DataData Requirements

    Aircraft Traffic & Volumes Climate

    Pavement Structure

    Climate Sensitivity Analysis

    Traffic Sensitivity Analysis

    Subgrade Sensitivity Analysis

    Design Methods vs.

    Transport Canada

  • Airport Pavement Design MethodsAirport Pavement Design Methods

    FlexibleFlexible •• Transport Canada (TC)Transport Canada (TC) •• Federal AviationFederal Aviation

    Administration (FAA)Administration (FAA) CBR MethodCBR Method

    •• FAA Layered ElasticFAA Layered Elastic Design (LEDFAA)Design (LEDFAA)

    •• Asphalt Institute SW-1Asphalt Institute SW-1 •• Australian AirportAustralian Airport

    Pavement StructuralPavement Structural Design System (APSDS)Design System (APSDS)

    RigidRigid •• Transport Canada (TC)Transport Canada (TC) •• Federal AviationFederal Aviation

    Administration (FAA)Administration (FAA) Westergaard MethodWestergaard Method

    •• FAA Layered ElasticFAA Layered Elastic Design (LEDFAA)Design (LEDFAA)

    •• FAA Finite ElementFAA Finite Element Design (FEDFAA)Design (FEDFAA)

    •• American ConcreteAmerican Concrete Pavement AssociationPavement Association AIRPAVE 2000AIRPAVE 2000

  • Sources of DataSources of Data 20%

    0%

    13%

    20%13%

    34% Altantic Quebec Ontario Prairie Pacific Northern

    60% 13%

    7%

    7%

    13%

    National Airport System Regional/ Local Arctic Remote Unclassified

    Airport Region

    Airport Type

  • Within Program Results – FlexibleWithin Program Results – Flexible Equivalent Granular ThicknessEquivalent Granular Thickness

    I for all SSI for all SS

    VS for all SSVS for all SS

    I for all SSI for all SS

    M - S for NSBM - S for NSB S for NSBS for NSB M for SBM for SB S for SBS for SB

    FAAFAA

    W-M for LSSW-M for LSS I for HSSI for HSS

    S-VS for HSSS-VS for HSS I for LSSI for LSS

    VS for HSSVS for HSS I for LSSI for LSS

    S - VS for HVFS - VS for HVF W for MVFW for MVF

    I for LVF & XCWI for LVF & XCW

    TCTC

    N/AN/A

    N/AN/A

    N/AN/A

    S S –– VS for all VS for all LEDFAALEDFAA

    N/AN/A

    N/AN/A

    *W for all*W for all SSSS

    VS for allVS for all SW-1SW-1

    N/AN/AWheelWheel LoadLoad

    N/AN/AMGWMGW

    N/AN/AFIFI

    VS for allVS for allCBRCBR APSDSAPSDSAnalysisAnalysis

    Legend: CBR=California Bearing Ratio FI=Freezing Index MGW=Maximum Gross Weight VS=very strong S=strong M=moderate W=weak I=insignificant HVF=high volume facility MVF=medium volume facility LVF=low volume facility HSS=high subgrade strength MSS=medium subgrade strength LSS=low subgrade strength NSB=non-stabilized base SB=stabilized base XCW=extreme cold weather climates * = Mean Average Air Temperature

  • Within Program Results – RigidWithin Program Results – Rigid PCC SlabPCC Slab

    S for allS for allN/AN/AN/AN/AN/AN/AN/AN/ATire contactTire contact areaarea

    L-M for allL-M for allN/AN/AN/AN/AN/AN/AN/AN/AGear LoadGear Load

    I for allI for all

    S for allS for all I for allI for all

    W for XLVFW for XLVF VS for othersVS for others

    FAAFAA

    S-VS for allS-VS for all

    L for HSSL for HSS M for LSSM for LSS

    I for allI for all

    W for LVFW for LVF S-VS for HFVS-VS for HFV

    TCTC

    N/AN/A

    N/AN/A N/AN/A

    NC for XLVFNC for XLVF VS for othersVS for others

    LEDFAALEDFAA

    N/AN/A

    N/AN/A N/AN/A

    NC for XLVFNC for XLVF S-VS for othersS-VS for others

    FEDFAAFEDFAA

    N/AN/AWheel LoadWheel Load

    N/AN/AMGWMGW N/AN/AFIFI

    VS for allVS for allCBRCBR

    AIRPAVEAIRPAVEAnalysisAnalysis

    Legend: CBR=California Bearing Ratio FI=Freezing Index MGW=Maximum Gross Weight VS=very strong S=strong M=moderate W=weak I=insignificant HVF=high volume facility MVF=medium volume facility LVF=low volume facility HSS=high subgrade strength MSS=medium subgrade strength LSS=low subgrade strength NSB=non-stabilized base SB=stabilized base XLVF=extreme low volume facility NC=no change

  • Between Program Flexible ResultsBetween Program Flexible Results

    Subgrade strength &Subgrade strength & annual growthannual growth

    statistically significant statistically significant

    Change in subgradeChange in subgrade strength more significantstrength more significant than an in traffic of upthan an in traffic of up to 10%to 10%

    TC with frost protection &TC with frost protection & FAA with stabilized baseFAA with stabilized base

    most conservativemost conservative flexible pavement structureflexible pavement structure

    LEDFAA and FAA withLEDFAA and FAA with stabilized base moststabilized base most closely relate to TC flexibleclosely relate to TC flexible design outputdesign output

  • Between Program Rigid ResultsBetween Program Rigid Results

    Subgrade strength &Subgrade strength & annual growthannual growth

    statistically significant statistically significant

    Change in subgradeChange in subgrade strength more significantstrength more significant than an in traffic of upthan an in traffic of up to 10%to 10%

    FEDFAA and TC with noFEDFAA and TC with no frost protection = thinnestfrost protection = thinnest PCC slab thicknessesPCC slab thicknesses

    TC with frost protectionTC with frost protection and FAA = thickest PCCand FAA = thickest PCC slab thicknessesslab thicknesses

    FAA > LEDFAA > FEDFAAFAA > LEDFAA > FEDFAA

    FAA & AIRPAVE mostFAA & AIRPAVE most closely relate to Transportclosely relate to Transport Canada rigid design outputCanada rigid design output

  • Conclusions - FlexibleConclusions - Flexible

    Flexible pavement thickness decreases or remainsFlexible pavement thickness decreases or remains unchanged as the subgrade strength increasesunchanged as the subgrade strength increases

    The FAA flexible pavement thickness increasesThe FAA flexible pavement thickness increases dramatically once the subgrade is reduced to a CBR of 6dramatically once the subgrade is reduced to a CBR of 6 (weak subgrade strength)(weak subgrade strength)

    FAA flexible = FAA flexible = ff (design aircraft maximum gross weight) (design aircraft maximum gross weight)

    LEDFAA, FEDFAA, SW-1, APSDS more sensitive toLEDFAA, FEDFAA, SW-1, APSDS more sensitive to subgrade (vs. traffic)subgrade (vs. traffic)

  • Conclusions - RigidConclusions - Rigid

    TC rigid PCC slab thickness = TC rigid PCC slab thickness = ff (design aircraft wheel (design aircraft wheel load)load)

    TC rigid TPT = TC rigid TPT = ff (Freezing Index) (Freezing Index)

    AIRPAVE = AIRPAVE = ff (tire contact area) (tire contact area)

    FEDFAA = thinnest PCC slab thicknessFEDFAA = thinnest PCC slab thickness

    FAA > LEDFAA > FEDFAAFAA > LEDFAA > FEDFAA

  • RecommendationsRecommendations

    Geometric design analysisGeometric design analysis –– impact on pavement design and performanceimpact on pavement design and performance

    Comparison new design methods (FAARFIELD)Comparison new design methods (FAARFIELD)

    New state-of-the art designs do not necessarily accountNew state-of-the art designs do not necessarily account for the climatic conditions experienced in Canadafor the climatic conditions experienced in Canada

    Incorporate economic analysis into the design andIncorporate economic analysis into the design and planning stageplanning stage

    Pavement Thickness Design for Canadian Airports Introduction Methodology Airport Pavement Design Methods Sources of Data Within Program Results – Flexible Equivalent Granular Thickness Within Program Results – RigidPCC Slab Between Program Flexible Results Between Program Rigi

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