Path To Confederation. Act of Union 1840 United Upper and Lower Canada under one government United Upper and Lower Canada under one government They became.

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Slide 1 Path To Confederation Slide 2 Act of Union 1840 United Upper and Lower Canada under one government United Upper and Lower Canada under one government They became known as East & West Canada They became known as East & West Canada Started with equal representation Started with equal representation As English population increased they demanded representation by population As English population increased they demanded representation by population This angered the French This angered the French Slide 3 Act of Union Cont It was unfair It was unfair Upper Canada had fewer people and higher debt Upper Canada had fewer people and higher debt The French language was banned The French language was banned However Louis Lafontaine and Robert Baldwin worked together to make it fairer However Louis Lafontaine and Robert Baldwin worked together to make it fairer Tensions between French and English caused political stalemate Tensions between French and English caused political stalemate Slide 4 Calls for Federation By the 1850s there were movements within the government to unite all the BNA colonies By the 1850s there were movements within the government to unite all the BNA colonies By 1864 a coalition government led by George Brown, John A. MacDonald and George-Etienne Cartier were pushing for Confederation By 1864 a coalition government led by George Brown, John A. MacDonald and George-Etienne Cartier were pushing for Confederation This would strengthen the colonies as a whole This would strengthen the colonies as a whole Slide 5 Britains Support By this time the British Empire was in decline By this time the British Empire was in decline They wanted to get rid of financial responsibility for their colonies They wanted to get rid of financial responsibility for their colonies Also they wanted strong colonies in light of the American Civil War which was taking place (1861-1865) Also they wanted strong colonies in light of the American Civil War which was taking place (1861-1865) Slide 6 The Maritimes At the same time in 1864 NS (Charles Tupper) and NB (Samuel Tilley) were trying to convince PEI (John Gray) to join a Maritime Confederation At the same time in 1864 NS (Charles Tupper) and NB (Samuel Tilley) were trying to convince PEI (John Gray) to join a Maritime Confederation They were geographically separate from the rest of BNA and could be stronger by joining They were geographically separate from the rest of BNA and could be stronger by joining Tilley and Tupper suggested a conference in Charlottetown Tilley and Tupper suggested a conference in Charlottetown Slide 7 The Charlottetown Conference The coalition government of Brown, MacDonald and Cartier crashed the party The coalition government of Brown, MacDonald and Cartier crashed the party While NS and NB were arguing for a Maritime Confederation, they argued for a BNA Confederation While NS and NB were arguing for a Maritime Confederation, they argued for a BNA Confederation The Maritime provinces warmed to the idea of a larger union The Maritime provinces warmed to the idea of a larger union Slide 8 Quebec Resolutions Oct. 1864- 33 members from BNA met in Quebec to discuss the details of union Oct. 1864- 33 members from BNA met in Quebec to discuss the details of union They tried to learn from the mistakes of France and USA They tried to learn from the mistakes of France and USA Strong central government Strong central government Rep-by-pop Rep-by-pop Senate would have equal rep Senate would have equal rep Most of the resolutions were written by John A. MacDonald Most of the resolutions were written by John A. MacDonald Slide 9 Opposition While the idea of Confederation was popular in East/West Canada, it was quite unpopular in the Maritimes While the idea of Confederation was popular in East/West Canada, it was quite unpopular in the Maritimes NFLD and PEI both found no support from their populations and did not pursue it NFLD and PEI both found no support from their populations and did not pursue it Slide 10 Opposition in NB While Tilley wanted to join the voters of NB did not like the idea While Tilley wanted to join the voters of NB did not like the idea His party lost an election in 1865 of which Confederation was the main issue His party lost an election in 1865 of which Confederation was the main issue The new government fell apart in a year and a new election was called in 1866 The new government fell apart in a year and a new election was called in 1866 Slide 11 NB Cont At the same time in 1866 a small Irish- American terrorist group known as the Fenians launched raids on British colonies At the same time in 1866 a small Irish- American terrorist group known as the Fenians launched raids on British colonies This caused enough fear that Tilley was able to convince NB of the need for a Union with central Canada This caused enough fear that Tilley was able to convince NB of the need for a Union with central Canada Slide 12 Issues in NS Tupper was in a good position Tupper was in a good position He wanted confederation and he was in power in NS He wanted confederation and he was in power in NS He did not need to call an election until 1867 so he drove Confederation through despite opposition He did not need to call an election until 1867 so he drove Confederation through despite opposition Slide 13 NS Cont The loudest voice of opposition was Joseph Howe The loudest voice of opposition was Joseph Howe He believed that Confederation served the purposes of Central Canada over the concerns of the smaller Maritime region He believed that Confederation served the purposes of Central Canada over the concerns of the smaller Maritime region He argued that Tupper should call an election on the issue He argued that Tupper should call an election on the issue Howe also petitioned Britain directly to stop Tupper, but no action was taken Howe also petitioned Britain directly to stop Tupper, but no action was taken In the end NS was dragged into the deal by Tupper In the end NS was dragged into the deal by Tupper Slide 14 BNA Act During the three years after the Charlottetown conference the leaders of Canada, NB and NS worked on drafting an agreement During the three years after the Charlottetown conference the leaders of Canada, NB and NS worked on drafting an agreement In March of 1867 the BNA Act was passed into British Law In March of 1867 the BNA Act was passed into British Law Canada became a sovereign nation on July 1, of that same year Canada became a sovereign nation on July 1, of that same year The Act was signed by Ontario, Quebec, NS and NB The Act was signed by Ontario, Quebec, NS and NB

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