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  • 1. Paragraphs 101

2. Introductions ndicate the Parts of Your Essay The intro should indicate what is coming. In the middle of you paper develop each point into one or two paragraphs Take a bold stand Start out with a strong statement of your position 3. Introductions tart with the Other Side Tell what you disagree with and who aid it. Give the opposing reason so that you can later prove them wrong. ell a Brief Story Give one or two paragraphs to a single typical case, and then make your general point. se the News Lead Write a sentence incorporating, who, what, when, where, how, and sometimes why. 4. Introductions ove from the General to the Specific Begin with the wider context of the topic and the zero in on the case at hand 5. 5 General statement introduction Today smoking is an issue which is on everybodys mind. The whole country is divided on this issue. Some people believe that smoking should be banned everywhere while others are not so harsh. However, I believe that tobacco should be outlawed because smoking endangers everyones health, pollutes the environment, and drains us of valuable energy.( 57) 6. 6 Quotation introduction In The Monitor it was recently stated that smoking is the greatest threat to our health. The whole country is divided on this issue. I believe that tobacco should be outlawed because it endangers everyones health; it pollutes the environment, and it drains of valuable resources. (49) 7. Created by Jos J. Gonzlez, Jr. Spring 2002 7 Final reminders !!!! e concise and to the point! o not go into too much detail! t least 50 words minimum! ou must do three things . . . introduce topic state position provide reasons 8. Body Paragraphs Paragraphs 101 9. Paragraphs Long and Short ach paragraph should make one point, and every sentence in it should relate to that one point. Usually the paragraph begins by stating the point and then goes on to explain it and make it specific. ndent the first line of the paragraph 10. Paragraphs Long and Short reak up Long Paragraphs Find a natural point for division, such as: A new subject or idea A turning point in a story The start of an example A change in location or time xpand short paragraphs To many short paragraphs can make your thought seem fragmented. 11. Paragraphs Long and Short xpand short paragraphs Combine Join two paragraphs on the same point Include examples in the same paragraph as the point they illustrate. Develop Give examples or reasons to support your point Cite facts, statistics, or evidence to support your point Relate an incident or event that supports your point. Explain any important general terms Quote authorities to back up what you say. 12. Paragraphs Long and Short Omit If you cant expand, develop, or combine get rid of it. heck For Continuity Link your paragraphs together with transitions; taking words or ideas from one paragraph and using them at the beginning of the next one. 13. Conclusion Introduction Body paragraph #1 Body paragraph #2 Body paragraph #3 14. Support reason 1 Support reason 2 Support reason 3 Topic sentence Conclusion Topic sentence Support sentence 1 Proof sentence 1 Support sentence 2 Proof sentence 2 Support sentence 3 Proof sentence 3 Concluding sentence The McParagraph logic: The McParagraph sentences: 15. Topic Sentences opic sentences state the main idea of the paragraph. he rest of the paragraph must expand on, describe, or prove what the topic sentence states in some way. good topic sentence make a point and suggests the logical structure of the rest of the paragraph. 16. Which are good topic sentences? exas has 267,000 square miles. exas is so big that you can find many things to do. here are several ways of accurately telling how old fossils are. he animal dies and sinks to the sea floor. 17. topic sentence is the first sentence in your body paragraph. support sentence gives a reason in support of the paragraphs topic sentence. proof sentence proves a support sentence by providing a detail or quotation from a source. conclusion (one sentence) refers back to the topic, provides a logical closing, and may provide a transition to the next body paragraph. 18. What makes each sentence in the following body paragraph what it is: a topic, support, proof, or concluding sentence? 19. The political success of Lincolns speech - the last speech in a series sponsored by the Young Mens Central Republican Union of New York that winter (Holtzer, 1999) - had something to do with timing and luck. A sizable number of Republican leaders were worried that the front-running candidate, New York Senator William Henry Seward, was perceived by the Northern electorate as too close to the unpopular abolitionist movement (Holtzer, 1999). According to Holtzer (1999),Lincolns best ally in the winter of 1860 was his lack of association with the abolitionists in the mind of New Yorkers,. Republicans were worried also that Seward has little appeal in the West (Illinois, Ohio, etc.) (Burris 2002). Burris (2002) asserts that Indiana and Illinois Republicans perceived Seward as an Eastern liberal. Lincoln also benefited from the political machinations of the speech seriess sponsors. The Young Republicans planned the speech series ostensibly to introduce alternative candidates to Seward, but the real motivation of the group's leader, James A. Briggs, was to damage Seward enough to promote his favorite alternative, Ohio governor Salmon P. Chase (Holtzer, 1999). The Republican partys soul- searching and the secret motivations of the series sponsors gave Lincoln the opening he needed. Topic Support Proof Support Proof Support Proof 20. Conclusions Paragraphs 101 21. The conclusion paragraph in an essay of literary analysis functions as follows: t finishes off the essay and tells the reader where the writer has brought them. t restates the thesis and contains echoes of the introduction and body paragraphs without listing the points covered in the essay. t creates a broader implication of the ideas discussed and answers the questions: so what? Or why do we care? 22. Anatomy of the Conclusion: he conclusion begins with a restatement of the thesis, not a repetition, and gradually widens toward a final , broad statement of implication. orrows from the body paragraphs, without being flatly repetitive or listing points already covered. reates echoes of the introduction and body paragraphs to reinforce analysis/ ideas. oves outward with a statement that relates the thesis to a broader implication so the reader can see the analytical focus 23. Strategies for Composing Conclusions: trike a note of hope or despair. ive a symbolic or powerful detail/fact. reate an analogy that relates your topic to a larger implication. ive an especially compelling example. se a meaningful quotation. (If you used a meaningful quotation in your introduction, refer back to this quote and tie it in with your overall analysis.) 24. ecommend a course of action without being preachy. cho the language and approach of the introduction. eference and make meaning of the title of the work you are analyzing. 25. Consider the following checklist when writing a conclusion: void first-person point of view, abstract/vague language, poor diction, and slang. void simply repeating the thesis and/or listing the main points. ont conclude more than you reasonably can from the evidence you have presented. cho the language and ideas from your introduction and body paragraphs. 26. xpand on the implications of your analysis: So what? Why do we care about these ideas? Whats so important about what youve developed in your paper? Are there any other applications for your ideas? void any attempts at humor, cuteness, or sarcasm. he conclusion need not be longer than four to six sentences, as with the introduction, but must be adequately developed. nclude the title(s) and author(s) once more. 27. Sample Conclusions: valuate the strengths and weaknesses of the sample conclusions to follow. dentify possible references to the thesis statements, introduction, and body paragraphs. dentify broader implications. dentify and evaluate other strategies used. 28. Sample 1: Both great works of epic literature from historical India and Japan certainly provide fascinating insights into the study of the idealization of women and wives. We can see how the different social conventions of each time and place have a defined impact on womens roles within the institution of marriage. In reflecting on the societal expectations of a wife as represented in classical world literature we can gain new insights into womens roles within marriage in a contemporary world. Future generations will look to our contemporary literature as a depiction of our societys expectations and values of women not only as wives, but as single and independent women, as well. 29. Sample 2: Ednas character transforms from sleeping through life by meeting expectations to a great awakening, in which her thoughts and actions are consistent with each other. Ednas struggle between her inner desires and her outward conformity is one in which her best solution was to satisfy no roles and expectations, including her own. Her character is so memorable because the reader can empathize with Ednas internal conflict to both conform and defy. She is unforgettable because she does what each of us has wanted to do; her character resonates with the universal human condition of defying and abandoning societal expectations and impositions. 30. Sample 3: The culmination of Stephen Dedalus linguistic and artistic development in James Joyces A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man in indicated at the end of the novel when his story is no longer dependent on a narrator, but is told by Stephen himself through his journal. The journal entries are projected forth in the unfiltered language of the artist