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  • PalestinianandIsraeliLiteraturePreparedby:

    MichelleRamadan,PingreeSchoolThisdocumenthasbeenmadeavailableonlineforeducationalpurposesonly.Useofanypartofthisdocumentmustbeaccompaniedbyappropriatecitation.Partiesinterestedinpublishingany

    partofthisdocumentmustreceivedpermissionfromtheauthor.Ifyouhaveanyrecommendationsorsuggestionsforthisunit,pleasedonothesitatetocontactMichelle

    Ramadanatmramadan@pingree.org.Overview:Formanyaudiences,understandingofthePalestinianIsraeliconflictcomesmainlyfromthemedianewsofviolenceandofpoliticalfrictiondominatetheairwaves,andwesometimesforgetabouttheordinaryPalestinianandIsraelicitizensinvolved.TogetatthehumanelementofthePalestinianIsraeliconflict,studentswillread,discuss,andreflectonstoriesfromand/oraboutPalestineandIsrael.Unitsaredesignedbytheme/topic,andeachunitcontainsreadingsfrombothPalestinianandIsraeliperspectivesoneachtheme/topic.Thiscurriculumwasdesignedforagrade12course.Timing:Suggestedclassperiods:21+.Thiscurriculummay,ofcourse,beshortenedorlengtheneddependingonschedule,students,etc.Thiscurriculummayalsobedevelopedintoasemesterlongcourse.HowtoReadthisDocument:ThisPalestinian&IsraeliLiteratureUnithasbeendividedinto9miniunits.Undereachminiunit,youwillfindsuggestedclasstimes,backgroundinformationorcontext,suggestedreadings,andsuggestedclasslessons/activities.Attheendofthedocument,youwillfindsamplewritingassignmentsandfurtherinformationaboutthesuggestedreadings.Mostreadingsareavailableonline,andlinkshavebeenprovided. TableofContents:

    Unit1:HistoryofthePalestinianIsraeliConflictUnit2:Perspectiveson1948Unit3:ReturnUnit4:DisplacementUnit5:PoemsAboutLandUnit6:IdentitiesUnit7:TensionsBetweenUnit8:JerusaleminLiteratureUnit9:LookingtotheFutureWritingAssignmentsReadings

  • Unit 1: History of the Palestinian-Israeli Conflict SuggestedTime:3classperiodsDay1History:Readings:BackgroundtothePalestinianIsraeliConflictbytheCenterforMiddleEasternStudiesattheUniversityofArizona.Reviewprimarysources:HusseinMcMahonLetters,SykesPicotAgreement,andBalfourDeclaration.

    Inclass:HistorylessonofthePalestinianIsraeliConflict.Day2Simulation:PrepareforSimulationontheIsraeliPalestinianConflictbytheUnitedStatesInstituteofPeace.AssignstudentsspecificrolesandhavethemreviewtheParticipantTasks&KeyIssues.Basedontheircharacterandthehistorytheyhavelearned,roleplayersshouldwriteaproposalonhowtohelpimprovethesituationinIsrael/Palestine.Guidingquestions:Whatarethekeyissuesforyourcharacter?Whatproposalswillyoumake?Whatwillyounotcompromiseon?Whatwillyoucompromiseon?Studentsshouldbesuretoincorporatethestoryoftheircharacterinwritingtheirproposals.Americanmediatorsshouldreadallrolesandpreparequestionstofacilitatediscussioninclass.

    Inclass:SimulationontheIsraeliPalestinianConflictfacilitatedbyAmericanmediators.Teacherprovidesnametagsforstudents.Teachertypesupatranscriptoftheconversationtosharewithmediators(thisrolemayalsobeassignedtoastudentiftheclassislargerthantheamountofrolesassigned).

    Day3Reflection:Americanmediatorsshouldproduceadocumentsummarizingthemainpointsofthediscussion,identifyinganypointsofcommonground,andhighlightingremainingtensions.Americanmediatorsshouldpreparetosharetheirsummarywiththeclass.Roleplayersshouldreflectonthediscussionhadduringthesimulationand,takingastepawayfromtheirrole,reflectwhatthey,asAmericanstudents,believewouldleadtolastingpeaceintheregion.

    Inclass:Americanmediatorspresentsummary.Studentsdiscusstheirownviewsbasedontheknowledgetheyhaveoftheconflictsofar.

    http://cmes.arizona.edu/sites/cmes.arizona.edu/files/High%20School%20English%202%20-%20Background%20to%20the%20conflict_0.pdfhttp://www.usip.org/sites/default/files/israeli_conflict.pdf

  • Unit 2: Perspectives on 1948 SuggestedTime:2+classperiodsBackgroundfromBackgroundtothePalestinianIsraeliConflict:In1947,U.N.Resolution181dividedPalestineintwo:giving55%ofthelandtotheJewsand45%tothePalestinians,whileputtingthecityofJerusalemunderaseparateinternationalauthority.TheJewsacceptedtheproposalandproclaimedthecreationofthestateofIsraelinMay1948thePalestiniansrejectedthelossoftheirterritory.FightingbrokeoutinwhichneighboringArabcountriessupportedthePalestinians.Israeliforceswerevictorious.Israeliscallthewarof1948TheWarofIndependence,whereasPalestinianscallitAlNakbaor,inEnglish,TheCatastrophe.

    Day1PalestinesAlNakba:Readings:JoeSaccosPalestineBlackCoffeepages164165(GraphicNovel),AbuSalmasMyCountryonPartitionDay(Poem),andGhassanKanafanis"PaperfromRamleh(ShortStory).ForhistoricalcontextabouttheeventsthatoccurredinRamleh,youmayalsowanttolookatSandyTolans"TheFallofanArabTownin1948"inAlJazeera(Article:http://www.aljazeera.com/focus/60yearsofdivision/2008/07/20087116188515832.html)

    Inclass:CompareandcontrastthesentimentsaboutAlNakbaandpartitiondayinKanafani,Sacco,andAbuSalmaspieces.

    Day2IsraelsWarofIndependence:Readings:S.YizharsThePrisoner(ShortStory),andYehudaAmichaisAMeetingwithmyFather"(Poem).

    Inclass:Discussion.DiscussionquestionsforThePrisoner:Basedonyourreadingofthisstory,whatareS.Yizharsviewsonthewarofindependence?Whataretheeffectsofwarfareonthesoldierandtheshepherd?Howdoesthesoldierexperiencewarfare(1948)?Shouldeverymanassumethefullweightandresponsibilityofhischoices?Whatortowhomisthesoldierbeholdento?Doespowerdehumanizethosewhoexerciseit?Istheproblemwarorpower?Ismanvictimtowarorpower?Whatshouldprevail:themoralunitednessofanunyieldinggrouportheindividualsmorality?Whytaketheprisoner?Attheendofthestory,thesoldierengagesininternaldialogue:Howandwhyisthesoldierconflicted?Whatshouldthesoldierdo?Whatwouldyoudo?Whatshouldyoudo?Wouldyousettheprisonerfree?Whatwouldhappenifweallstartedtosetprisonersfree(70)?(SomeofthesediscussionquestionsareinspiredbythesectiononS.YizharinModernHebrewLiteraturebyRobertAlter).

    Day3Reflection:Inwriting,reflectonthevaryingperspectivesPalestinianandIsraelioftheeventsof1948.Howdotheperspectivescompareandcontrasttooneanother?Whatdoesthereaderlearnfromeachpieceofliterature/fromeachperspective?WhatcouldPalestiniansandIsraelislearnfromreadingeachothersliteratureabout1948?ThiscouldbedoneforHW,asablogpost,orassignedasaninclassessay.

    http://cmes.arizona.edu/sites/cmes.arizona.edu/files/High%20School%20English%202%20-%20Background%20to%20the%20conflict_0.pdfhttp://www.aljazeera.com/focus/60yearsofdivision/2008/07/20087116188515832.html

  • Unit 3: Return SuggestedTime:2+classperiodsBackground:PartofthedebateinthePalestinianIsraeliconflictincludestheideaofreturn.ManyPalestiniansarerefugeeslivingintheWestBank,inGaza,inrefugeecampsinLebanonandJordan,orarespreadelsewhereintheMiddleEastandthewestaspartofalargePalestiniandiaspora.ThePalestinianRightofReturn"isapoliticalpositionorprincipleassertingthatPalestinianrefugees,bothfirstgenerationrefugees...andtheirdescendants...havearighttoreturn,andarighttothepropertytheythemselvesortheirforebearsleftbehindorwereforcedtoleaveinwhatisnowIsraelandthePalestinianterritories(bothformerlypartoftheBritishMandateofPalestine),aspartofthe1948Palestinianexodus,aresultofthe1948Palestinewarandduetothe1967SixDayWar(Wikipedia:RightofReturn).IsraelsDeclarationofIndependenceasserts:"TheStateofIsraelwillbeopentotheimmigrationofJewsandtheingatheringofexilesfromallcountriesoftheirdispersion(MyJewishLearning).TheLawofReturnis"Israelilegislation,passedon5July1950,thatgivesJewstherightofreturnandtherighttoliveinIsraelandtogaincitizenship"(Wikipedia:LawofReturn).Aliyah"istheimmigrationofJewsfromthediasporatothelandofIsrael...ItisoneofthemostbasictenetsofZionistideology...TheconceptofAliyah(return)totheHolyLandwasfirstdevelopedinJewishhistoryduringtheBabylonianexile.DuringtheJewishdiaspora,AliyahwasdevelopedasanationalaspirationfortheJewishpeople...LargescaleimmigrationtoPalestinebeganin1882.SincetheestablishmentoftheStateofIsraelin1948,morethan3millionJewsfromover90countrieshave'madeAliyah'andarrivedinIsrael(Wikipedia:Aliyah).Day1Palestine:(GiventhelengthofKanafanisnovella,thismaytake2days)Readings:GhassanKanafanisReturningtoHaifa(Novella),AbuSalmasWeShallReturn(Poem),&JoeSaccosPalestineReturnpages1115(GraphicNovel).

    Inclass:Discussion.Day2Israel:Readings:SarahGliddensHowtounderstandIsraelin60daysorLessChapter1:Orientation&Chapter2:GolanHeights(GraphicNovel).

    Inclass:Discussion.Day3Reflection:Inwriting,reflectonthevaryingperspectivesPalestinianandIsraeliontheideaofreturn.Howdotheperspectivescompareandcontrasttooneanother?Whatdoesthereaderlearnfromeachpieceofliterature/fromeachperspective?WhatcouldPalestiniansandIsraelislearnfromreadingeachothersliteraturedealingwithreturn?HowdoPalestinianandIsraeliideasaboutreturnaffect/impactthePalestinianIsraeliconflict?ThiscouldbedoneforHW,asablogpost,orassignedasaninclassessay.

    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Palestinian_right_of_returnhttp://www.myjewishlearning.com/israel/History/1948-1967/Building_the_State/law-of-return.shtmlhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Law_of_Returnhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aliyah

  • Unit 4: Displacement SuggestedTime:2+classperiodsBackground:Asapeople,PalestiniansandJewshavebothexperienceddisplacementandhavereflectedonitintheirrespectiveliteratures.TheliteratureselectedaboutPalestinereflectssentimentsaboutthecurrentrefugeeexperienceforPalestinians.IntheIsraeliliteratureselected,authorsreflectontheHolocaustanditsimpactontheJewishpeople.ThoughitmaybearguedthatdisplacementbeganforJewsduringthetimeoftheRomanEmpire,thefocusofthisunitisondisplacementafterthetragicandcrueleventsoftheHolocaust.DuringandaftertheHolocaust,manyJewsweredisplaced.AccordingtotheUnitedStatesHolocaustMemorialMuseum,Afterliberation,manyJewishsurvivorsfearedtoreturntotheirformerhomesbecauseoftheantisemitism(hatredofJews)thatpersistedinpartsofEuropeandthetraumatheyhadsuffered.Somewhoreturnedhomefearedfortheirlives...Withfewpossibilitiesforemigration,tensofthousandsofhomelessHolocaustsurvivorsmigratedwestwardtootherEuropeanterritoriesliberatedbythewesternAllies.Theretheywerehousedinhundredsofrefugeecentersan