pakistan-renewable energy sources

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CONTENTS

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY..........................................................................................2 OUTLINE OF THE TOPIC........................................................................................3 INTRODUCTION........................................................................................................4 RENEWABLE ENERGY SOURCES OF PAKISTAN............................................5 POTENTIAL OF WATER ENERGY.......................................................................6 POTENTIAL OF SOLAR ENERGY........................................................................7 ENERGY FROM WASTES......................................................................................9 ENERGY FROM MISCELLANEOUS WASTES..................................................12 POTENTIAL OF GEOTHERMAL ENERGY........................................................15 HOT DRY ROCK GEOTHERMAL ENERGY POTENTIAL...............................17 CONCLUSION...........................................................................................................17 REFERENCES...........................................................................................................18

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EXECUTIVE SUMMARYThe project, named Effects of Energy Crises on Pakistans Economy is one of the most important issues in Pakistans Economic Environment. This project covers a lot of important points relevant to Pakistans Current Energy Crises and Economic problems, due to which, our country is continuously facing the tremendous situation of improvement and development. PROBLEMS Energy Sources are one of the most important and famous sources of any country. These sources include Hydropower Electric Plants and reservoirs, Wind Power Development Plants, Chemical and Coal Energy Power Plants. Pakistan is precious for all these sources of energy. But, unfortunately, due to the misuse of the plants, improper utilization of these sources and continuously increasing population, our needs and demands are increasing, and we are facing lack of resources. The load shedding factor has become a common issue and most of our industrial and technological sector remains frozen for a huge period of time. The continuous increase in the population requires that power generation plants and energy utilization plants must be developed. Furthermore, it is required for solving our economic and energy problems that new plants and reservoirs must be setup in order to compensate the already beared losses and unproductivity. THE SECTORS MOST AFFECTED The following are the sectors of our energy that are being affected mostly during recent years. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Hydroelectric Sector Wind Power Sector Recycling Sector Reservoirs Technological Sector

THE MEASURES TO SOLVE THE PROBLEMS All of the above stated sectors of our economy can be improved by changing our policies and rules. We can improve our Hydroelectric Power Plants by installing new dams/reservoirs on even small canals and waterfalls. We can search these small waterfalls and lakes and can install new plants on such canals by hiring hard working people. We can improve our recycling sector by using the wastage material, which we take as useless and not having any benefit, but, seriously, these wastages, if utilized properly, may be such beneficial for our economy that we can even use such wastages as our raw material for manufacturing and finishing other products. Similarly we can improve our technological sector by hiring the most bonafide and skilled labour and workers. All these measures may result, in a whole, a great success and recovery for our weak economic and energetic sectors.

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OUTLINE OF THE TOPIC

Energy is the lifeline of a nation. The economic engine and the wheels of industry, agriculture and business

need energy to move forward. Pakistan is self-sufficient in energy resources. Unfortunately, the energy needs of Pakistani Nation have never been

achieved. Pakistan is in lack of dams and reservoirs. Solar energy in Pakistan is not properly utilized. Same as pervious, the Wind power is also not properly utilized for the

production of electricity. Pakistan has only few wind power plants. As compared to other countries, Pakistan has limited plants, reservoirs

and dams. In Pakistan, the energy resources are not properly utilized. It is very necessary for Pakistans energy sources to be properly utilized

and managed so that the lack of energy is removed and the problems of the industrial sector for energy are solved.

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INTRODUCTIONEnergy is the lifeline of a nation. The economic engine and the wheels of industry, agriculture and business need energy to move forward. On the social aspect, energy consumption per capita is a key indicator of the quality of life of the citizens and community. Unfortunately in Pakistan, in spite of tall claims and style by all governments, real solutions to meet the energy requirements of the nation have never been formulated or achieved. As a consequence, Pakistan economic, industrial and social growth has been greatly constrained. Due to an increasing gap in energy demand versus capacity, while successive governments put power generation and availability of gas as a priority on their agenda, unfortunately, all plans of providing adequate and affordable energy to the citizens have failed to materialize. The inability to implement energy projects has been attributed to fiscal constraints, but in reality it is due to paucity of a VISION, absence of robust planning and of a commitment to national development. Further there continues to be a basic lack of understanding of the dynamics of the energy sector and market forces. The disastrous results are for all to see, while those in the corridors of power and authority in various ministries, and heads of public sector utilities have moved on, without any sense of responsibility or accountability. is obvious even to the common citizen that the strategy and plans for the Pakistan energy sector are neither clear nor properly formulated by the government. In the current scenario, the nation is faced with electric power shortages of about 3,500 MW. If we consider the load of the industry of about 1,500 - 2,000 MW, which has been shut down, due to unavailability of power, as well as gas, then the actual shortfall is in the 5,000 MW range. Part of the shortage is attributable to nonpayment of subsidies by the government, and non-payment by KESC and FATA for power supplied. This has resulted in a circular debt of over Rs. 300 billion in the energy sector. At the same time the gas supply shortage is in the range of 500 MMcfd - 800 MMcfd mostly in the SNGPL area. As such nearly 3,000 MW of capacity with the IPPs, and GENCOs has been made idle, while the government is busy signing up new rentals and IPPs with tariffs in the 10-15 cts/kwh range. There also has been no analytical study of the cost impact and its effect on the tariff. So the Ministry of Water and Power is playing a waiting game with frequent hints of further escalation of power tariffs. The situation appears even more distressing when we consider that Pakistan is blessed with a hydel potential of 45,000 MW power generation capacities, an equal if not more capacity for alternative energy. On the primary fuel side, our coal reserves are estimated as the 2nd largest globally. It is essential, as a first step to understand what are the sources of primary energy and their availability and quantum in Pakistan, as well as globally, and what form and from what sources, energy can be imported by Pakistan. Secondly, what is, and what should be an optimal Energy mix for Pakistan and to what extent Pakistan can meet its own energy requirements in the short, medium and long term? The time is now to move ahead towards formulating a comprehensive energy plan that will provide energy sufficiency & sustainability and provide cost effective and reliable energy in a competitive environment to business, industry and the citizens of Pakistan. With the facts described above, it is essential that focus is shifted mainly to indigenous sources namely hydel, wind, waste, geothermal and solar with an appropriate share for renewable.It

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RENEWABLE ENERGY SOURCES OF PAKISTANPakistan has wide spectrum of high potential of renewable energy sources, conventional and non-conventional as well, which have not been adequately explored, exploited or developed. As a result, the primary energy supplies today are not enough to meet even the present demand. Moreover, a very large part of the rural areas does not have the electrification facilities because they are either too remote and/or too expensive to connect to the national grid. So, Pakistan, like other developing countries of the region, is facing a serious challenge of energy deficit. The development of the renewable energy sources can play an important role in meeting this challenge. Pakistan stretches from 24N to 37N latitudes and from 61E to 76E longitudes. The total land area of Pakistan is about 800,000 km. The northeast to southwest extent of the country is about 1,700 km, and its east-west width is approximately 1,000 km. The geology and geography of Pakistan varies from lofty mountains of Himalayas, Karakorum, Hindukush and Pamirs in the north to the fascinating coastline of the Arabian Sea in the south. In between the northern and southern extreme ends of the country, notable and unique bented north-south oriented mountain ranges exist centrally bounded by the fertile plains of 3000-long River Indus and western part of famous Thar Desert on eastern side, and by the Chagai volcanic arc, vast tectonic depression of Kharan, and the westward swinging mountain ranges of Makran flysch basin.

In the north and west nearly 60 % of the land area is mountainous terrain and incised tablela