P2-89 A ubiquinone rich maternal diet (PUFA) leads to raised content of this beneficial lipid in adult offspring heart

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    Conclusions: Maternal MR per se resulted in an increased bodyfat and in plasma triglycerides, free fatty acids and totalcholesterol concentrations in the offspring. These changes haddiscernible effect on mt DNA damage in skeletal muscles per sepredispose the offspring to insulin resistance and hypertension inlater life.

    P2-89 A ubiquinone rich maternal diet (PUFA) leads to raisedcontent of this benecial lipid in adult offspring heart

    P. Shelley1,2 *, S.J. Heales2, J.B. Clark2, R.I. Jensen1, L. Poston1,P.D. Taylor1, J.M. McConnell1. 1Division of Reproduction andEndocrinology, KCL London, UK, 2Division of Neurochemistry,Institute of Neurology, UCL London, UKE-mail: piran.shelley@kcl.ac.uk

    Aims: Ubiquinone (CoQ) is essential for mitochondrial functionand antioxidant defences, and is present in polyunsaturated fats(Huertas J.R., et al. 1991). We have previously demonstrated thata maternal diet rich in polyunsaturated fats protects offspring fromhypertension (Jensen R., et al. 2005). The aim of this study was todetermine CoQ content in maternal diet and cardiac tissue fromadult offspring.Study design and Subjects: During pregnancy and lactation ratdams were maintained on a polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA),saturated fatty acid (SFA) or control (C) diet. The offspring wereweaned onto a C diet and cardiac was collected in male offspringat 12 month of age.Outcome measures: CoQ concentration was analysed in maternaldiet and offspring heart tissue by reverse phase HPLC. Statisticalanalysis was performed by ANOVA and all results are presented asthe meanSEM.Results: The CoQ content of the maternal diets was elevatedin the PUFA diet (PUFA 242,448 pmol/mg, SFA 36,734 pmol/mg,C 7,919 pmol/mg). Left ventricular CoQ content was signicantlyelevated in offspring whose mothers were fed PUFA diet(PUFA 1647163 pmol/mg, n = 7; SFA 1260169 pmol/mg, n = 5;C 121279, n = 7. PUFA vs C p = 0.03, PUFA vs SFA p = 0.07).Conclusions: Consumption of high levels of CoQ during pregnancyleads to a persistent increase in content of this benecial lipid inoffspring hearts. Our observations cannot be simply explained byresidual dietary CoQ whose half-life is only 59 hrs in cardiac tissue(Turunen M., et al. 2000). Supplementation of maternal diet withCoQ may be of therapeutic value.This project is supported by the BHF.

    P2-90 Processes involved in developing palatablemicronutrient-rich snacks for a pre-conceptional andintra-pregnancy micronutrient intervention trial; theMumbai Maternal Nutrition Project

    S. Devi1 *, G. Subbulaxmi1, B. Margetts2, C.H.D. Fall2,R.D. Potdar1, P. Chheda1, N. Brown2, S.A. Sahariah1, S. Kehoe2.1Mumbai Maternal Nutrition Study, Centre for the Study ofSocial Change, Bandra East, Mumbai 400051, India, 2University ofSouthampton, Southampton, UKE-mail: devis_4@rediffmail.com

    Aims: To develop food-based supplements, in the form of snacks,for a randomized controlled trial of micronutrient supplementationof women, from 3 months pre-conception to birth, to improvefetal growth and infant mortality. Ingredients were, green leafyvegetables (GLVs), milk and fruit, based on an earlier observationalstudy in which mothers regularly consuming these foods deliveredbabies with higher birth weights.Study design: Development of a variety of palatable recipes,achieving target micronutrient levels (beta-carotene, folate,riboavin, vitamin C, iron, calcium), suitable for fresh same-day distribution, and recording of intake. Development ofsize appearance taste-matched control supplements, of similarenergy and protein content.

    Materials: Food powders dried at ambient temperature, with abinding vehicle, and (for some recipes) an outer covering. Standardcooking methods.Outcome measures:Palatable, recordable and comparable foodsnacks.Results: 25 recipes were adopted for the trial. Target micronutrientlevels were achieved, except for vitamin C (mean beta-carotene 276 RE, folate 102mcg/100g, riboavin 0.48mg/100g,iron 10.9mg/100g, calcium 464mg/100g). Energy and proteincontent were higher (mean 190 kcal and 7 g) in test than controlrecipes (mean 100 kcal, 1.8 g). Compliance was achieved in 60% ofwomen.Conclusions: We considered: (1) palatability and variety (assessedby taste panels, feedback from women, and compliance);(2) correct allocation (packaging); (3) minimal disruption tohabitual diet (assessed by dietary questionnaires); (4) standardmicro- and macronutrient content (assessed by laboratory analysis& NIN values respectively); (5) microbiological safety. It ispossible to develop palatable micronutrient-rich supplementsusing dehydrated foods, and suitable control recipes. Exacttaste appearance and macronutrient content matching withcontrols was difcult to achieve.

    P2-91 Umbilical cord serum ferritin as a predictor ofneurodevelopment at age ve years

    A.H. Streubel *, M.A. Klebanoff. Division of Epidemiology, Statisticsand Prevention Research, The National Institute of Child Healthand Human Development, The National Institutes of Health,Bethesda, MD, USAE-mail: astreubel@gmail.com

    Aims: To study fetal iron stores, as measured by umbilical cordserum ferritin level (UCSFL), in relation to psychomotor functioninglater in childhood.Study design: Secondary data analysis of a prospective population-based multicenter study.Subjects: Pregnant women at three Scandinavian centers wereenrolled. 1361 children born full term, without congenitalanomalies, and with 5 year follow-up were analyzed.Outcome measures: Bayley Scales of Infant Development (BSID)at age 13 months, and the Weschler preschool and primary scaleof intelligence (WPPSI) and Peabody Developmental Motor Scale(PDMS) at age 5 years.Results: UCSFL, maternal age, maternal education, newborngender, breastfeeding duration, home screening questionnaire(HSQ) score, parity, birth size, gestational age, hemoglobin, andsmoking were all evaluated as predictors of neurodevelopment.UCSFL ranged from 6 510mg/l, (mean 147.785.2mg/l). UCSFL wasa signicant predictor of WPPSI and PDMS scores, but not the BSIDscores. In linear regression analysis predicting WPPSI score, thestrongest predictors were maternal education, HSQ score, femalegender, and UCSFL (b = 0.02, p = 0.04). For the PDMS-gross motor,only UCSFL (b = 0.01, p = 0.02) and female gender were signicant.For the PDMS-ne motor, maternal age, education and UCSFL(b = 0.006, p = 0.03) were signicant.Conclusions: No association was noted between UCSFL and theBSID scores at 13 months. However, signicant positive associationswere noted with UCSFL and WPPSI and PDMS gross and ne motorscores at 5 years. The role of iron as a fetal micronutrient hasa positive impact on childhood neurodevelopment irrespective ofhome environment and maternal qualities.