P2-14 Developmental exposure to bisphenol-A leads to obesity and cardiovascular dysfunction in adult mouse offspring

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  • S132 Posters

    18%-C, 9%-HF and 9%-C groups. Offspring were killed at 16 weeksof age, and hypothalamic and intrascapular brown adipose (iBAT)tissues were analyzed for changes in mRNA levels using PCR-basedtechniques.Outcome measures: mRNA levels of genes in tissue samples.Results: From previous work we found that HF offspring wereheavier vs C groups, but the 9%-HF male offspring had signicantlyreduced energy intake vs the 9%-C group. The present study showsthat in these 9%-HF males, hypothalamic mRNA levels for the genesNPY and Ob-Rb (a leptin receptor isoform), which are involvedin appetite regulation, were signicantly lower vs the 9%-C group(p < 0.05). The iBAT mRNA levels of the beta-3 adrenergic receptorand uncoupling protein-1, genes which are involved in energyexpenditure regulation, in these 9%-HF males were also signicantlylower vs the 9%-C group (p < 0.05).Conclusions: Our results suggest that adaptive changes duringdevelopment in response to maternal dietary manipulation havelong-term consequences on the regulation of appetite andmetabolism following post-weaning exposure to an energy-richnutritional environment.This work is supported by MRC, BBSRC & BHF (UK).

    P2-10 Short term psychological stress following conceptionalters ovine fetal development

    J. Smith1, D. Ferguson1, G. Jauregui2, M. Panarace2, S. Lehnert3 *,J. Hill1. 1CSIRO Livestock Industries, FD McMaster Laboratory,NSW, Australia, 2Goyaike S.A.A.C.I y F Biotecnologa Animal,San Joaqun, Argentina, 3CSIRO Livestock Industries, QueenslandBioscience Precinct, Qld, AustraliaE-mail: Sigrid.Lehnert@csiro.au

    We sought to test whether maternal stress during the periodimmediately following conception could have an impact on fetaldevelopment in sheep. 20 superovulated ewes were articiallyinseminated. On Days 2 and 3 after conception, an intensepsychological stress (partial shearing, close presence of a workingdog) was applied for 1 hour to 10 of the ewes. 10 non-stressedewes served as controls. Embryos were recovered from the 20donor ewes at Day 6. Approximately half of the transferable gradeembryos (grade 1 2) were placed into synchronized recipients.The remaining embryos were retained for analysis of embryo cellcount. Recipients were evaluated for pregnancy using ultrasound atDay 30. Heart rate and fetal length measurements were assessedevery 2 weeks from Day 30 to Day 60. Abdominal circumference,femur length and heart rate were measured monthly from Day 85.Fewer embryos from stressed ewes were classied as transferable.The Day 30 pregnancy rate was higher for embryos from stressedewes. Fetuses from the stress group had 4% longer crown rumplengths at Day 30. By Day 85 abdominal circumferences of stressedfetuses were signicantly larger. A month later (Day 114), fetalgrowth parameters showed no difference between groups and thiscontinued to Day 142. Stress had a signicant effect on gestationlength as lambs from the stress treatment were born 1.3 daysearlier.This data shows that two short periods of psychological stressapplied to ewes during the periconceptional period resulted inmeasurable effects on fetal development and gestation length.

    P2-11 The effect of education on the knowledge of themothers concerning prevention of rheumatic fever

    Z. Zandiyeh*. Isfahan, Iran

    Introduction: Providing physical and mental health is the mostimportant role of humans. So there is such science as health ofwhich one of the major goals is to prevent diseases and to promotepublic health. Since children are as a future treasure of a nation,prevention of rheumatic fever looks so essential. 1/3 of patientswith rheumatic fever develop cardiovascular valve disorders. Ifa child develops such disorder he will be disable for all his lifeimposing the society high budget damage and costs. So this research

    was carried out to investigate the effect of mothers education ontheir knowledge of rheumatic fever prevention.Methods: This is a quasi experimental study on 45 mothers referringto Isfahan clinics. The data were collected by questionnairesthrough primary and secondary tests. Descriptive inferential (Pairt- test) statistics were used to analyze the data.Results: The nding showed mothers knowledge is signicantlyassociated with parameters such as age, education, disease history,marriage, age, family income and the source of knowledge(P< 0.001). Regarding the effect of education on mothersknowledge, there is also a signicant association (P< 0.001). Onthe whole, the ndings showed education signicantly affects onmothers knowledge (P< 0.001).Discussion: Since mothers knowledge plays a major role inchildrens disease prevention and their disabilities in future,education can be an effective way to decrease disease prevalenceand promote public health.Keywords: Education, prevention, rheumatic fever.

    P2-12 The study of effect of cognitive behavioral counselingon body image alterations in women underwentmastectomy referring to sayed allshohada hospital inIsfahan in 2003

    T. Mehrabi *, S. Fadaei, M. Janighorban. Isfahan University ofmedical science, Iran

    Introduction: Breast cancer is the most common cancer in womenthroughout the world. The life till risk among women of beingdiagnosed with breast cancer is 12.6% or 1 in 8 women mastectomyresults in the loss of a body part that is viewed as essentialfor maintaining feminity, attractiveness and self esteem. Thealteration in body image as a result of the disease, surgery ortreatment painful scar, hair loss, weight alteration, prematuremenopause, loss of role function at work or in the family causespsychosocial problems. For body image to remain healthy it mustaccurately incorporate the actual physical changes of surgery, thatis, the person accept the body as it has become.Methods: This research is a quasi experimental study and consistsof two group and two stages. The samples included 72 patientsunderwent mastectomy that were randomly by conveniencesampling put into experimental and control group. The objective ofthis study was to determine effect of counseling on mean of bodyimage score in women underwent mastectomy. The experimentalgroup participated in six sessions which include Elliss rationalemotive therapy problem solving adaptation skills and relaxationtraining. Body image was assessed with questionnaire and datawere analyzed with paired t test and independent t-test using SPSSsoftware.Results: The results showed a signicant difference between meanof body image score before and after counseling in experimentalgroup (P< 0.001); also a signicant difference was seen betweenmean of body image score after counseling in two groups(P< 0.001).Discussion: At the nal of this study improvement in body imagewas seen in women underwent mastectomy so psychotherapeutictreatment especially supportive and cognitive behavioral therapiesin group setting are recommended.Keywords: Breast cancer, mastectomy, body image, psychosocialinterventions, counseling

    P2-14 Developmental exposure to bisphenol-A leadsto obesity and cardiovascular dysfunction inadult mouse offspring

    F. Cagampang*, F. Anthony, M. Hanson. Institute of DevelopmentalSciences, Developmental Origins of Health & Disease Division,University of Southampton School of Medicine, SouthamptonGeneral Hospital, Mailpoint 887, Southampton SO16 6YD, UKE-mail: f.cagampang@soton.ac.uk

    Aims: Developmental exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals(EDC) has been implicated in the development of reproductive

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    tract disease and dysfunction. In this study, we examined theeffects of prenatal exposure to bisphenol-A (BPA), a known EDC,on the development of obesity and cardiovascular dysfunction inthe mouse offspring.Study design and Subjects: Pregnant MF-1 mice were treatedwith BPA (100mg/kg BW/day) or oil vehicle by daily subcutaneousinjections from gestational days 11 19. The birthweights weremeasured, and weight gain of the offspring monitored to 14 weeksof age. Systolic blood pressure and locomotor activity weremeasured at 12 weeks of age.Outcome measures: Sex ratio, birthweight, body weight gain,locomotor activity and blood pressure.Results: BPA treatment during pregnancy had no effects onnumber of pups born in each litter but resulted in a signicantlygreater number of female offspring in each litter. Birthweightof BPA-exposed pups were signicantly lighter vs newborn pupsfrom vehicle-treated control dams (p < 0.001). However theseBPA-exposed offspring became increasingly heavier with age,signicantly from controls by 6 wks of age in both males andfemales. At 12 wks BPA-exposed male and female offspring weremore hypertensive vs controls (p < 0.001). Locomotor activity ofoffspring appeared to be unaffected by prenatal BPA.Conclusions: Our results support the idea that prenatal exposureto EDC may play a role in the development of obesity and relateddiseases, e.g. cardiovascular disease later in life.This work is supported by the BHF (UK).

    P2-15 Early determinants of smoking in adolescence: aprospective birth cohort study

    A.M.B. Menezes1 *, P.C. Hallal, B.L. Horta. Post-Graduate Programin Epidemiology, Federal University of Pelotas, BrazilE-mail: anamene@terra.com.br

    Aims: To investigate the prevalence and early risk factors forsmoking in early adolescence.Study design: A prospective birth cohort study in Brazil.Subjects: All 1982 hospital-based children in Pelotas, SouthernBrazil, were enrolled in a birth cohort study. All male participantswere searched in 2000 when enrolling in the national army and78.8% were traced. In 2001, a systematic sample of 473 girls wasinterviewed, representing a follow-up rate of 69.1%.Outcome measures: Daily smoking was dened as at least onecigarette per day in each day of the previous week; weekly smokingwas dened as at least one day of smoking in the previous week.Results: Among males, 48.6% (95%CI: 46.6 50.7) had ever triedsmoking and 15.8% (95%CI: 14.3 17.3) were daily smokers. Amongfemales, 53.1% (95%CI: 48.6 57.6) had ever tried smoking and15.4% (95%CI: 12.1 18.7) were daily smokers. Boys born to singlemothers and those with fathers with low schooling were more likelyto smoke in adolescence. Girls from low-income families, withmothers who smoked during pregnancy, and fathers with alcohol-related problems were more likely to smoke.Conclusions: Although the smoking prevalence was similar in boysand girls, risk factors for smoking were different between thesexes. Social environment appears to be the strongest predictorof tobacco use in adolescence.

    P2-16 Identication of Legionella in the hot water supply of ageneral hospital in Isfahan

    A.A. Neshat *, M.R. Shahmansouri. Iran

    Background: Legionella is a Gram-negative, aerobic, and sporelessbacterium which is readily found in ventilation systems, coolingtowers, hot water distribution systems, bathrooms, swimmingpools, and fountains. Legionella is implicated in the legionnairesand Pontiac fever diseases. Hospitals are common habitats for thebacterium, where the bacterial growths are amply found and thatprovide the most likely places for susceptible people to contractthe diseases. Given the importance of hospitals in this regard, thissurvey was carried out in a General Hospital in Isfahan.

    Methods: For the purposes of this study, a total of 30 samples weretaken according to standard methods from hot water distributionsystem at various points in the kitchen, the bathrooms, the internaldistribution system, and the cooling towers (8, 8, 8, and 6 samples,respectively). After that temperature, pH, and residual chlorineof samples were determined, the samples were transferred to labwhere they were inoculated on a base medium of BCYE-a and twoselective media of GPVA and CCVC. The plates were then incubatedat a temperature of 37C and a humidity of 90%. The colonies werethen identied and counted.Results: The tests showed that 11 from the total 30 sampleswere contaminated with Legionella, accounting for 36.6% of thesamples. The numbers of Legionella-positive samples from thekitchens, bathrooms, internal distribution system, and coolingtower were 4, 3, 3, and 1, respectively. From the total 30 heat andacid pretreated samples inoculated on base and selective media,36.6% were Legionella positive while from the untreated samples,6% grew on the base medium and 23% on selective media. Totalmean of residual chlorine was 0.25mg/l, pH = 7.6, and averagetemperature was 31.1C. The results of biochemical tests Bloodagar, Catalz, Urea agar, Gelatin agar, Motility, and gram stainingwere , +, , +, +, and , respectively. In addition to these tests,Legionella colonies were grown by Direct Fluorescent Antibody,conrming their presence.Conclusion: The results indicate that temperature is a criticalfactor in Legionella sp.s proliferation. An average 0.25mg/l ofresidual chlorine showed to have no effect on disinfecting thebacterium. Heat pretreatment proved to be more effective thanthe acidic one in removing nuisance factors and, nally, bacterialgrowth was higher on the selective media than on the basemedium.Keywords: Legionella, water supply, hospital hot water.

    P2-17 Placental programming of insulin action: life course andmolecular basis

    J.A. Owens*. Discipline of Obstetrics and Gynaecology andResearch Centre for the Early Origins of Health and Disease,School of Paediatrics and Reproductive Health, University ofAdelaide, Adelaide, SA, 5000, AustraliaE-mail: julie.owens@adelaide.edu.au

    Placental insufciency is a common pregnancy complication andcause of fetal growth restriction and reduced size at birthfor gestational age. Low birthweight consistently predicts anincreased risk of adult diabetes, accounting for a substantialproportion of its population prevalence. In humans, this appearsto be mediated through peripheral insulin resistance that emergesin early adult life, preceded by defects in insulin secretion.Experimental placental restriction has been induced in rodents andin sheep and the life course and tissue, cellular and molecularbasis of placental programming of insulin action and diabetesmore directly characterised. In sheep, placental restriction impairsinsulin secretion from before birth, due in part to reduced b cellmass. This persists into adult life, despite increased pancreaticexpression of PDX-1 and other factors that help restore b cell mass,suggesting impairment of intrinsic b cell function and/or the actionof inhibitory systemic inuences in vivo. Placental restriction insheep does not impair insulin sensitivity before birth, but wholebody insulin resistance emerges by one month of age postnatally,following catch-up growth and in association with increased centralobesity. This placentally induced insulin resistance is due in partto reduced expression of critical insulin signalling nodes, includingthat of IRS-1, p110b, AKT and GSK-3a and of targets, such as GLUT4,in skeletal muscle, but not liver. Therefore the timing of onset ofplacentally programmed defects in insulin secretion and sensitivityvaries, with windows of opportunity for intervention...

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