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  • Slide 1
  • P. RAVICHANDRAN Central Institute of Brackishwater Aquaculture & Coastal Aquaculture Authority REGULATORY NEEDS FOR SUSTAINABLE SHRIMP FARMING
  • Slide 2
  • Capture fisheries in 2012 - 181.8 million mt Aquaculture production - 90.4 million mt (23.8 m mt of algae) Fish for Human consumption - 158 million mt Aquaculture contribution - 42.1% - 66.6 million mt Annual Growth rate 1990-2000 - 9.5% 2000-2012 - 6.2% More than 90% of global aquaculture output is produced in developing countries. AQUACULTURE GROWTH
  • Slide 3
  • With Capture Fisheries production is stagnant Aquaculture is expected to meet the ever increasing Global food fish demand. Increasing Volume of production, trade and consumption Increasing demand for Improved sustainability, Social acceptability, and Human health safety AQUACULTURE GROWTH
  • Slide 4
  • The management and conservation of the natural resource base and the orientation of technological and institutional change in such a manner as to ensure the attainment and continued satisfaction of human needs for present and future generations. Such sustainable development conserves land, water, plant and animal genetic resources, environmentally non-degrading, technically appropriate, economically viable and socially acceptable SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT
  • Slide 5
  • Sustainability key issues 1.Introduction of alien and/or genetically altered organisms 2.Potential conflicts with other users of aquatic resources 3.Food safety and aquatic animal health 4.Use of fish meal and fish oil 5.Environmental impact due to aquaculture farm effluent 6.Conversion of other land categories for aquaculture.
  • Slide 6
  • Code of Conduct for Responsible Fisheries Considering the concerns expressed on the long-term sustainability of fisheries and aquaculture, due to over-exploitation of important fish stocks, damage to ecosystems, economic losses, and issues affecting fish trade, FAO adopted on 31 October 1995, by consensus after a series of meetings during 1991 1995, the Code of Conduct for Responsible Fisheries (CCRF).
  • Slide 7
  • Code of Conduct for Responsible Fisheries Sets out principles and international standards of behaviour for responsible practices for effective conservation, management of living aquatic resources Recognizes the nutritional, economic, social and environmental and cultural importance of fisheries and interests of all stakeholders Takes into account the biological characteristics of the resources and their environments and The interests of consumers and other users
  • Slide 8
  • Code of Conduct for Responsible Fisheries Technical Guidelines for Responsible Fisheries International Principles for Responsible farming of specific candidate species Location specific Codes of Practice (COP), BMPs suitable for adoption by farmers in particular social, economic and environmental contexts. public and private sectors
  • Slide 9
  • ARTICLE 9. AQUACULTURE DEVELOPMENT AT NATIONAL LEVELAT NATIONAL LEVEL Development of legal and administrative frame work Evaluation of the impact of aquaculture on genetic diversity and ecological integrity Ecologically sustainable and rational use of resources Should not affect livelihood of local communities and their access to water front Environmental assessment and monitoring Co-operation with neighbouring countries in trans- boundary ecosystems introduction of exotics Conservation of genetic diversity and maintaining integrity of aquatic communities and ecosystems.
  • Slide 10
  • ARTICLE 9. AQUACULTURE DEVELOPMENT AT NATIONAL LEVEL (contd..) International code and practices for introduction and transfer of aquatic organisms. To minimize risks of disease transfer to wild and cultured stocks Development of culture techniques for endangered species
  • Slide 11
  • ARTICLE 9. AQUACULTURE DEVELOPMENT AT PRODUCTION LEVEL In support of rural communities, producer organizations and fish farmers Promote active participation of fish farmers and their communities Promote effective farm and fish health management practices Safe, effective and minimal use of therapeutants, hormones and drugs, antibiotics and other disease control chemicals should be ensured. regulate the use of chemical inputs in aquaculture the disposal of wastes does not constitute a hazard to human health and the environment ensure the food safety of aquaculture products
  • Slide 12
  • International principles for Responsible shrimp farming Key issues identified though consultation Development of an internationally agreed document Globally accepted management principles for responsible shrimp aquaculture Guiding principles Key criteria
  • Slide 13
  • The 8 principles for responsible shrimp farming 1.Farm Siting 2.Farm Design 3.Water Use 4.Broodstock and postlarvae 5.Feed Management 6.Health Management 7.Food Safety 8.Social Responsibility
  • Slide 14
  • Principle 1: Farm Siting Principle Locate shrimp farms according to national planning and legal frameworks in environmentally suitable locations, making efficient use of land and water resources and in ways that conserve biodiversity, ecologically sensitive habitats and ecosystem functions, recognizing other land uses, and that other people and species depend upon these same ecosystems. Implementation guidance Build new shrimp farms above the inter-tidal zone. No net loss of mangroves or other sensitive wetland habitats. Do not locate shrimp farms on sandy soils or other areas where seepage or other areas where seepage or discharge of salt water may affect agricultural land or freshwater supplies. Do not locate new shrimp farms in areas that have already reached carrying capacity for aquaculture Retain buffer zones and habitat corridors between farms and other users and habitats. Obey land use and other planning laws and coastal management plans. Improve existing farms in inter-tidal and mangrove areas through mangrove restoration, retiring unproductive ponds and increasing productivity of remaining farm areas above the inter- tidal zone.
  • Slide 15
  • Principle Design and construct shrimp farms in ways that minimize environmental damage. Implementation guidance Incorporate buffer areas and techniques and engineering practices that minimize erosion and salination of surrounding areas during farm construction and operation. Minimize disturbance of acid-sulphate soils during construction and operation. Conserve biodiversity and encourage re- establishment of natural habitats in farm design Minimize creation of degraded areas such as unused soil piles and borrow pits. Design dykes, canals and infrastructure in ways that do not adversely affect hydrology. Separate effluent discharge points from inlet canal to reduce self pollution and maintain bio-security. Principle 2: Farm Design
  • Slide 16
  • Principle Minimize the impact of water use for shrimp farming on water resources. Implementation guidance No use of fresh groundwater for salinity control. Use water efficiently through minimizing water abstraction Minimize discharge of farm effluents and sediment to the environment. Aim to return water with lower concentrations of nutrients, organic matter and solids to the ecosystem than that (in influent) taken out Incorporate settlement and sedimentation ponds into the water inlet and outlet designs Manage water and soil quality to maintain suitable environmental conditions in shrimp ponds Obey national laws and guidelines on water use and effluent discharge. Principle 3: Water Use
  • Slide 17
  • Principle Where possible, use domesticated selected stocks of disease free and/or resistant shrimp broodstock and postlarvae to enhance bio-security, reduce disease incidence and increase production, whilst reducing the demand for wild stocks. Implementation guidance Avoid negative impacts on biodiversity from collection of wild caught broodstock or post-larvae Give preference to local and indigenous shrimp species. Adopt on-farm quarantine and bio-security measures to reduce risks of disease introductions. Use domesticated stocks wherever possible. Stock good quality postlarvae to improve chances of successful harvest. Comply with national, regional and international criteria controlling the movement and quarantine of animals. Principle 4: Broodstock and Postlarvae
  • Slide 18
  • Principle Utilize feeds and feed management practices that make efficient use of available feed resources, promote efficient shrimp growth, minimize production and discharge of wastes. Implementation guidance Use good quality formulated feeds. Make efficient use of shrimp feed resources. Minimize shrimp feed wastage. Principle 5: Feed Management
  • Slide 19
  • Principle Health management plans should be adopted that aim to reduce stress, minimize the risks of disease affecting both the cultured and wild stocks, and increase food safety. Implementation guidance Implement health management practices that reduce shrimp stress and focus on disease prevention rather than treatment. Maintain bio-security and minimize disease transmission between broodstock, hatchery and growout systems. Implement management strategies that avoid spreading shrimp diseases within and between farms. Use veterinary drugs responsibly and minimize the use of antibiotics. Principle 6: Health Management
  • Slide 20
  • Principle 7: Food Safety Principle Ensure food safety and the quality of shrimp products, whilst reducing the risks to ecosyst

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