# Overview - International Technology and Engineering Educators Association Foundations of Technology, Third Edition/ Technology, Engineering, and Design

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2012 International Technology and Engineering Educators Association Foundations of Technology, Third Edition/ Technology, Engineering, and Design

Unit 2: The Engineering Design Process

Overview Big Idea The Engineering Design process is a systematic, iterative problem solving method that produces solutions to meet human wants and desires. Teachers Note: Big ideas should be made explicit to students by writing them on the board, reading them aloud, and/or posting them on worksheets associated with the lessons. For deeper understanding, have students write the Big Idea in their own Engineering Design Journal (EDJ), using their own words, if they choose. Purpose of the Unit This unit will enable students to apply the engineering design process as they solve a variety of problems. Standards/Benchmarks Technology: Standards for Technological Literacy (STL) (ITEA/ITEEA, 2000/2002/2007)

STL 8 Students will develop an understanding of the attributes of design.

H The design process includes defining a problem, brainstorming, researching and generating ideas, identifying criteria and specifying constraints, exploring possibilities, selecting an approach, developing a design proposal, making a model or prototype, testing and evaluating the design using specifications, refining the design, creating or making it, and communicating processes and results.

I Design problems are seldom presented in a clearly defined form. J The design needs to be continually checked and critiqued, and the ideas of the

design must be redefined and improved. K Requirements of a design, such as criteria, constraints, and efficiency, sometimes

compete with each other. STL 9 Students will develop an understanding of engineering design.

I Established design principles are used to evaluate existing designs, to collect data, and to guide the design process.

J Engineering design is influenced by personal characteristics, such as creativity, resourcefulness, and the ability to visualize and think abstractly.

K Requirements of a design, such as criteria, constraints, and efficiency, sometimes compete with each other.

L The process of engineering design takes into account a number of factors. STL 11 Students will develop the abilities to apply the design process.

N Identify criteria and constraints and determine how these will affect the design process.

O Refine a design by using prototype and modeling to ensure quality, efficiency, and productivity of the final product.

Foundations of Technology, Third Edition/ Technology, Engineering, and Design

2012 International Technology and Engineering Educators Association Foundations of Technology, Third Edition/ Technology, Engineering, and Design

R Evaluate final solutions and communicate observation, processes, and results of the entire design process, using verbal, graphic, quantitative, virtual, and written means, in addition to three-dimensional models.

STL 12 Students will develop the abilities to use and maintain technological products and systems.

P Use computers and calculators to access, retrieve, organize, process, maintain, interpret, and evaluate data and information in order to communicate.

L Document processes and procedures and communicate tem to different audiences using appropriate oral and written techniques.

STL 13 Students will develop the abilities to assess the impact of products and systems.

J Collect information and evaluate its quality. Science: Benchmarks for Science Literacy (AAAS, 1993/2009)1 The Nature of Mathematics/Mathematics Science and Technology

Mathematical modeling aids in technological design by simulating how a proposed system might behave. 2B/H1

The Nature of Technology/Technology and Science Engineers, architects, and others who engage in design and technology use

scientific knowledge to solve practical problems. They also usually have to take human values and limitations into account. 3A/M3

The Nature of Technology/Design and Systems Design usually requires taking into account not only physical and biological

constraints, but also economic, political, social, ethical, and aesthetic ones. 3B/M1 Mathematics: Principles and Standards for School Mathematics (NCTM, 2000)2 Algebra Standard (NCTM, 9-12) Represent and analyze mathematical situations and structures using algebraic symbols. (NCTM-5)

Use symbolic algebra to represent and explain mathematical relationships. (Algebra-5L)

Use mathematical models to represent and understand quantitative relationships. (NCTM-6) Draw reasonable conclusions about a situation being modeled. (Algebra-6F)

Geometry Standard (NCTM, 9-12) Analyze characteristics and properties of two- and three-dimensional geometric shapes and develop mathematical arguments about geometric relationships. (NCTM-8)

Analyze properties and determine attributes of two- and three-dimensional objects. (Geometry-8M)

Use visualization, spatial reasoning, and geometric modeling to solve problems. (NCTM-11) Draw and construct representations of two- and three-dimensional geometric

object. (Geometry-11W) Visualize three-dimensional objects and spaces from different perspectives and

analyze their cross sections. (Geometry-11X) Use geometric ideas to solve problems in, and gain insights into, other disciplines

and other areas of interest such as art and architecture. (Geometry-11AA) 1 Material reprinted from Benchmarks for Science Literacy (AAAS, 1993, 2009) with permission from Project 2061, on behalf of the American Association for the Advancement of Science, Washington, DC. 2 Standards are listed with the permission of the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics (NCTM). NCTM does not endorse the content nor the validity of these alignments.

2012 International Technology and Engineering Educators Association Foundations of Technology, Third Edition/ Technology, Engineering, and Design

Unit Objectives

Lesson Big Idea Objectives Lesson 1: Design Process (8 Hours)

The Engineering Design process is a systematic, iterative problem solving method which produces solutions to meet human wants and desires.

Apply the steps of the design process including defining a problem, brainstorming, researching and generating ideas, identifying criteria and specifying constraints, exploring possibilities, selecting an approach, developing a design proposal, making a model or prototype, testing, and communicating results. Use symbolic algebra to represent and explain mathematical relationships. Draw reasonable conclusions about a situation being modeled. Analyze the cross sections of three-dimensional objects and spaces from different perspectives. Contribute to a group endeavor by offering useful ideas, supporting the efforts of others, and focusing on the task. Work safely and accurately with a variety of tools, machines, and materials. Actively participate in group discussions, ideation exercises, and debates.

Lesson 2: Collecting and Processing of Information (5 Hours)

Computers assist in organizing and analyzing data used in the engineering design process.

Collect data and information and use computers and calculators to organize, process, and present the collected data and information. Collect information and evaluate its quality. Draw reasonable conclusions about a situation being modeled.

Lesson 3: Design Principles (8 Hours)

There are several factors that significantly influence the design process.

Identify the design principles used in a current design, collect data on the effectiveness of the design principles used and propose a redesign using the design process. Describe the importance of creativity, resourcefulness, and the ability to visualize and think abstractly when engaged in engineering design. List three factors that must be considered when engaged in engineering design. Use mathematical modeling aids in technological design by simulating how a proposed system might behave. Identify human values and limitations when using scientific knowledge to solve practical design problems. Use symbolic algebra to represent and explain mathematical relationships.

Use geometric ideas to solve problems in, and gain insights into, other disciplines and other areas of interest such as art and architecture. Contribute to a group endeavor by offering useful ideas, supporting the efforts of others, and focusing on the task. Work safely and accurately with a variety of tools, machines, and materials. Actively participate in group discussions, ideation exercises, and debates.

Lesson 4: Criteria and Constraints (3 Hours)

Specifying criteria and identifying constraints is essential when defining a problem and determining the most appropriate solution.

Describe a design problem that does not clearly define all criteria and constraints. Describe a design where the requirements, such as criteria, constraints, and efficiency, compete with each other. Distinguish the criteria and constraints and reflect on how the criteria and constraints affected their final solution. Identify pertinent information needed to solve a given problem on two or more case studies. Draw reasonable conclusions about a situation being modeled. Explain how design usually requires taking into account not only physical and biological constraints, but also economic, political, social, ethical and aesthetic ones. Identify human values and limitations when using scientific knowledge to solve practical design problems.

Lesson 5: Prototypes and Modeling (6 Hours)

At various intervals of the engineering design process, conceptual, mathematical, and physical models are used to evaluate the design solution.

Demonstrate how to check or test a design in order to redefine and improve the design. Demonstrate the use of a prototype to test a design concept. Use prototypes and models to ensure quality, efficiency, and productivity of their final product. Demonstrate how mathematical modeling aids are used when simulating how a proposed system might behave. Use symbolic algebra to represent and explain mathematical relationships. Analyze the cross sections of three-dimensional objects and spaces from different perspectives. Use geometric ideas to solve problems in, and gain insights into, other disciplines and other areas of interest such as art and architecture.

Lesson 6: Applying the Design Process and Documentation (8 Hours)

Documentation of the Engineering Design Process is essential so that the solution can be communicated to the intended audience.

Communicate their observation, processes and results of the entire design process and the final solution, using appropriate verbal, graphic, quantitative, virtual, and written means, in addition to three-dimensional models. Present their completion of the design process through a presentation with two target audiences, using appropriate oral and written techniques. Analyze the cross sections of three-dimensional objects and spaces from different perspectives. Draw and construct representations of two- and three-dimensional geometric objects using a variety of tools.

Total: 38 Hours

Assessments There are no unit level assessments. Lessons in the unit are assessed using:

Selected Response Items Brief Constructed Response Items Extended Constructed Response Items Performance Rubrics

Specific tools are incorporated into each lesson as Supporting Files. EbD Video There are many ways to hook students, but one great way is through the EbD , or a video introduction to the unit and/or lessons. This allows visual cues while helping students to start thinking about what they already know about the Big Idea. The frog puts the content in context by using themes (Custer/Daugherty/Meyer, 2010; Hacker/Rousseau/Devries, 2009). Engagement is the first step to introducing a lesson. Engagement involves activating students' prior knowledge about the subject of study. In order to activate prior knowledge, the teacher must hook the students in and make them become interested in the lesson. The EbD MediaRichedition of this Course Guide, available to those teachers and schools in the EbD Network, includes the opportunity for teachers to submit frogs that are shared with other teachers in the Network.

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