Orrin Schwab_Redeemer Nation_America and the World

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The introductory chapter defines the narratives theory of twentieth century history. The author proposes the concepts of historical scripts, epistemologies, and institutions as fundamental ideas for understanding late modern history. Human history may be viewed within the context of complex interlocking scripts or narratives. Scripts exist at all levels of human interaction. They operate within individuals, controlling or guiding individual actions and life courses. Collective scripts operate within groups, institutions, nation-states and even civilizations. A hierarchy of connected scripts are controlled by metascripts. Nation-states have carried their scripts over centuries and even millennia. All the European nations have national scripts, that, like individuals, have predicted both success and tragedy. The British script is a classic example of a nation whose path has been shaped by victory and success. On the other hand, the German and Russian scripts were designed for profound tragedy. The American script, like its mother countrys, has largely been a narrative of success and victory. The script or metascript for American civilization has to do with redemptive mission of early Protestant culture. The Puritan concept of redemption inculcated itself into the core identity of American society in colonial times, making Americas national script one of searching for redemption, by doing Gods work in creating a new radical Protestant nation. As a redeemer, America found its mission in expansion, bringing American culture and institutions to the North American continent and in the twentieth century, the entire world.Scripts work in every dimension of culture, and shape the path of all human affairs. Epistemologies or systems of knowledge became of vast importance in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, as industrial societies generated scientific and technological knowledge on an ever increasing scale. The American script adopted the technocratic epistemology of the industrial and scientific revolutions of the 1800s. In its twentieth century form, the redeemer nation was the driving force behind technocratic internationalism, and the development of the liberal technocratic order. In this narrative, the redeemer nation has worked tirelessly at its objective. Epistemologies for scientific or technocratic knowledge have guided the American mission. Through institutional development, the epistemologies for American scientific and industrial mastery have effected the metascript for the United States and the West.

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<p>Redeemer NationAmerica and the World in the Technocratic Age1914 to the Present</p> <p>Copyright Orrin Schwab, 2004. All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher.</p> <p>Published by American University &amp; Colleges Press American Book Publishing P.O. Box 65624 Salt Lake City, UT 84165 http://www.american-book.com Salt Lake City, Utah, Printed in the United States of America on acid-free paper.</p> <p>Redeemer Nation: America and the World in the Technocratic Age 1914 to the Present Designed by Fabian Geyrhalter, design@american-book.com Publisher's Note: This publication is designed to provide accurate and authoritative information in regard to the subject matter covered. It is sold or distributed with the understanding that the publisher and author is not engaged in rendering legal, accounting, or other professional service. If legal advice or other expert assistance is required, the services of a competent professional person in a consultation capacity should be sought. ISBN 1-58982-190-4 Schwab, Orrin, Redeemer Nation: America and the World in the Technocratic Age 1914 to the Present _____________________________________________________</p> <p>Special SalesThese books are available at special discounts for bulk purchases. Special editions, including personalized covers, excerpts of existing books, and corporate imprints, can be created in large quantities for special needs. For more information e-mail orders@american-book.com or call 801-486-8639.</p> <p>_____________________________________________________</p> <p>Redeemer NationAmerica and the World in the Technocratic Age1914 to the Present</p> <p>Orrin Schwab</p> <p>DedicationTo the memory of David Schwab (19212002)</p> <p>Consider that we shall be as a City upon a Hill, the eyes of all people are upon us John Winthrop</p> <p>PrefaceRedeemer Nation was conceived and written over a period of ten years. It represents the crystallization of my research and thought on modern American foreign relations and its relationship to the larger narrative of world history. Since the history of the United States constitutes all of modern times from the sixteenth century onward, the scope of this study encompasses far more than contemporary international historians typically ascribe to their subject area. In my mind, this book represents a comprehensive and coherent interpretation of both national and international history. I accept responsibility for explaining both, and will not apologize for covering too much ground in too little space. The subject and the governing idea are certainly familiar. America, over four centuries, has conceived its national mission in terms of its cultural origins in Protestant British culture. For that reason, I have given it the name redeemer nation. Redemption, however, has always been a complicated matter that is directly related to who defines its meaning. To achieve salvation, the American nation-state has evolved with modern times, building a technocratic state and civilization dedicated to its own global realization. The reader may wonder at my adoption of terms such as technocratic, scripts, and epistemologies. The first two chapters discuss these ideas in detail, building, hopefully, a coherent understanding of my analytical framework. I suggest that there are different components of historical agency that synthesize together according to the redemptive script for American society. The multilevel historical view of this synthesis represents my core argument in this work. Ultimately, the reader shall determine what I add to the historical literature and to theory. Having trained as both a social scientist and as a historian, I have used an approach that attempts to bridge two disparate professional disciplines. I believe both types of professional observers can contribute insight and value to the understanding of history and the human condition. The following glossary helps clarify the narrative:</p> <p>Scripts: patterns of behavior followed by individuals or groups. Scripts are found throughout history. Life scripts: scripts followed by individuals. Institutional scripts: scripts followed by institutions. National scripts: scripts followed by nation-states. Metascripts: scripts found at the level of nation-states or civilizations that can span centuries or even millennia. Western metascript: the script guiding the path of Western civilization as a global phenomenon in modern history. Epistemologies: systems of knowledge specific to a particular subject or field of investigation. Technocratic: technical knowledge, institutions, culture, scripts, or consciousness. Technocratic epistemologies: systems of knowledge involving technocratic thought or knowledge. Liberal technocratic order: the global institutional and ideological order defined by the culture of modern liberalism, capitalism, and scientific knowledge. Technocratic internationalism: the ideology that supports the liberal technocratic order as a global political, cultural, institutional, and economic system.</p> <p>8</p> <p>ContentsIntroduction.................................................................................................................. 13 Narrative and Structure: The View from Space........................................................ 13 Chapter I The Scripting of American Internationalism .............................................. 33 A Comparative View of Collective Scripts............................................................... 37 Scripts: Dramaturgy and Human History.................................................................. 42 Epistemologies: Knowledge Systems ....................................................................... 46 Capitalism................................................................................................................. 49 Institutions: Organizational Systems ........................................................................ 53 Public and Private Systems....................................................................................... 54 The Market and the Corporate Machine................................................................ 56 The State Machine: The Military-Industrial Complex or the National Security State .................................................................................................................... 64 The Scripts and Metascripts...................................................................................... 68 The Technocratic Script............................................................................................ 73 America the Redeemer.............................................................................................. 76 Conclusion ................................................................................................................ 81 Chapter II The Great War ............................................................................................ 83 Scripted Dimensions................................................................................................. 83 The European Script: Nationalism and Technocracy................................................ 92 Nationalism and Imperialism.................................................................................... 97 Wilsonianism: The American Script....................................................................... 105 Strategy: Coalition Warfare .................................................................................... 109 Technocratic Institutions......................................................................................... 115 American Internationalism: Technocratic Principles.............................................. 117 The Russian Script.................................................................................................. 121 The Failure of the Liberal Script............................................................................. 125</p> <p>Chapter III The Interwar System: 19191939............................................................. 129 The Script Turns: Divergent Paths.......................................................................... 129 Postwar Wilsonianism ............................................................................................ 133 Interwar Isolationism and Corporate Internationalism ........................................... 144 The Great Depression ............................................................................................. 147 American Scripts .................................................................................................... 148 The Isolationist Script............................................................................................. 151 Institutional Scripts................................................................................................. 154 Intellectual Scripts .................................................................................................. 155 Isolationism vs. Internationalism: The American Epistemology for Global Affairs .................................................................................................................. 156 The Technocratic Path: Nazi Germany................................................................... 161 Lebensraum and Race: Nazi Ideology .................................................................... 163 Soviet Union: Stalinism and the International System ........................................... 165 Japanese Imperialism: The East Asian Co-Prosperity Sphere ................................ 168 Munich: The Appeasement Script .......................................................................... 170 The Failures of the Liberal Metascript.................................................................... 171 Chapter IV Defending the Free World: The Technocratic War .................................. 175 The Technocratic War ............................................................................................ 176 The Metascript: The Struggle for Power and Peace ............................................ 183 National Security State ........................................................................................... 190 War Production....................................................................................................... 193 War Epistemologies................................................................................................ 194 The Manhattan Project............................................................................................ 197 Postwar Planning .................................................................................................... 199 The Technocratic War Ends ................................................................................... 200 Chapter V The Orthodox Cold War........................................................................... 205 The Cold Wars Metascript..................................................................................... 205 Briefly: The Origins................................................................................................ 215 Cold War Epistemology ......................................................................................... 221 The Beginning of the Orthodox Phase: The Children of Light............................... 225 Orthodox Ideologies: Modes of Understanding...................................................... 228 Technocratic Knowledge ........................................................................................ 234 Orthodox Containment ........................................................................................... 240 The Marshall Plan................................................................................................... 242 Strategic Orthodoxy................................................................................................ 244 Technocratic Science .............................................................................................. 247 Crises in the Orthodox Period................................................................................. 248 The East Asian Crises: Korea ................................................................................. 249 Soviet and Chinese Scripts ..................................................................................... 251 The Korean Script................................................................................................... 252</p> <p>10</p> <p>Indochina ................................................................................................................ 254 China .................................................................................................................. 256 European Crises: Berlin .......................................................................................... 259 The Middle East...................................................................................................... 260 Toward the New Frontier: Cuba, Laos, and Berlin 1960........................................ 261 Chapter VI The Turn of the Script: Vietnam and the AntiCold War ........................ 265 The Rise of the Counterscript ................................................................................. 265 The Missile Crisis ................................................................................................... 269 The Aftermath......................................................................................................... 272 Vietnam ................................................................................................................. 273 The Intervention...................................................................................................... 274 Tet and Cambodia: The Denouement ..................................................................... 279 Nixon .................................................................................................................. 279 Post-Vietnam .......................................................................................................... 283 The Carter Presidency............................................................................................. 285 The New Script: Technocratic Development in the Revisionist Cold War ............ 287 The New Culture..................................................................................................... 291 Toward the Reagan Revolution .............................................................................. 295 Antecedents: American Decline ........................................................................</p>

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