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Download Organic and Biological Chemistry Chapter 25 Organic and Biological Chemistry Chemistry, The Central Science, 10th edition Theodore L. Brown; H. Eugene

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  • Slide 1
  • Organic and Biological Chemistry Chapter 25 Organic and Biological Chemistry Chemistry, The Central Science, 10th edition Theodore L. Brown; H. Eugene LeMay, Jr.; and Bruce E. Bursten John D. Bookstaver St. Charles Community College St. Peters, MO 2006, Prentice Hall, Inc. Modified by Jill McDannold
  • Slide 2
  • Organic and Biological Chemistry Organic Chemistry The chemistry of carbon compounds. Carbon has the ability to form long chains. Without this property, large biomolecules such as proteins, lipids, carbohydrates, and nucleic acids could not form.
  • Slide 3
  • Organic and Biological Chemistry Structure of Carbon Compounds Carbon typically forms 4 covalent bonds. There are three hybridization states and geometries found in organic compounds: sp 3 Tetrahedral sp 2 Trigonal planar sp Linear
  • Slide 4
  • Organic and Biological Chemistry Hydrocarbons Four basic types: Alkanes (single bonds) Alkenes (1 double bond) Alkynes (1 triple bond) Aromatic hydrocarbons (contain a benzene ring)
  • Slide 5
  • Organic and Biological Chemistry Alkanes Only single bonds. Saturated hydrocarbons. Saturated with hydrogens.
  • Slide 6
  • Organic and Biological Chemistry Formulas Lewis structures of alkanes look like this. Also called structural formulas. Often not convenient, though
  • Slide 7
  • Organic and Biological Chemistry Formulas so more often condensed formulas are used.
  • Slide 8
  • Organic and Biological Chemistry Properties of Alkanes Only van der Waals force: London force. Boiling point increases with length of chain.
  • Slide 9
  • Organic and Biological Chemistry Structure of Alkanes Carbons in alkanes sp 3 hybrids. Tetrahedral geometry. 109.5 bond angles.
  • Slide 10
  • Organic and Biological Chemistry Structure of Alkanes Only single bonds. Free rotation about C C bonds. Fairly unreactive because of the stability of the single covalent C- C and C-H bonds. Therefore, they make great nonpolar solvents.
  • Slide 11
  • Organic and Biological Chemistry Isomers Have same molecular formulas, but atoms are bonded in different order. Boiling and melting points vary but molar mass is the same.
  • Slide 12
  • Organic and Biological Chemistry Organic Nomenclature Three parts to a compound name: Base: Tells how many carbons are in the longest continuous chain.
  • Slide 13
  • Organic and Biological Chemistry Organic Nomenclature Three parts to a compound name: Base: Tells how many carbons are in the longest continuous chain. Suffix: Tells what type of compound it is.
  • Slide 14
  • Organic and Biological Chemistry Organic Nomenclature Three parts to a compound name: Base: Tells how many carbons are in the longest continuous chain. Suffix: Tells what type of compound it is. Prefix: Tells what groups are attached to chain.
  • Slide 15
  • Organic and Biological Chemistry To Name a Compound 1.Find the longest chain in the molecule. 2.Number the chain from the end nearest the first substituent encountered. 3.List the substituents as a prefix along with the number(s) of the carbon(s) to which they are attached.
  • Slide 16
  • Organic and Biological Chemistry To Name a Compound If there is more than one type of substituent in the molecule, list them alphabetically.
  • Slide 17
  • Organic and Biological Chemistry Cycloalkanes Carbon can also form ringed structures. Five- and six-membered rings are most stable. Can take on conformation in which angles are very close to tetrahedral angle. Smaller rings are quite strained.
  • Slide 18
  • Organic and Biological Chemistry Alkenes Contain at least one carboncarbon double bond. Unsaturated. Have fewer than maximum number of hydrogens.
  • Slide 19
  • Organic and Biological Chemistry Structure of Alkenes Unlike alkanes, alkenes cannot rotate freely about the double bond. Side-to-side overlap makes this impossible without breaking -bond.
  • Slide 20
  • Organic and Biological Chemistry Structure of Alkenes This creates geometric isomers, which differ from each other in the spatial arrangement of groups about the double bond.
  • Slide 21
  • Organic and Biological Chemistry Properties of Alkenes Structure also affects physical properties of alkenes.
  • Slide 22
  • Organic and Biological Chemistry Nomenclature of Alkenes Chain numbered so double bond gets smallest possible number. cis- alkenes have carbons in chain on same side of molecule. trans- alkenes have carbons in chain on opposite side of molecule.
  • Slide 23
  • Organic and Biological Chemistry Reactions of Alkenes Addition Reactions Two atoms (e.g., bromine) add across the double bond.
  • Slide 24
  • Organic and Biological Chemistry Alkynes Contain at least one carboncarbon triple bond. Carbons in triple bond sp-hybridized and have linear geometry. Also unsaturated.
  • Slide 25
  • Organic and Biological Chemistry Nomenclature of Alkynes Analogous to naming of alkenes. Suffix is -yne rather than ene. 4-methyl-2-pentyne
  • Slide 26
  • Organic and Biological Chemistry Reactions of Alkynes Undergo many of the same reactions alkenes do.
  • Slide 27
  • Organic and Biological Chemistry Aromatic Hydrocarbons Cyclic hydrocarbons. p-Orbital on each atom. Molecule is planar.
  • Slide 28
  • Organic and Biological Chemistry Aromatic Nomenclature Many aromatic hydrocarbons are known by their common names.
  • Slide 29
  • Organic and Biological Chemistry Reactions of Aromatic Compounds Unlike in alkenes and alkynes, - electrons do not sit between two atoms. Electrons are delocalized; this stabilizes aromatic compounds.
  • Slide 30
  • Organic and Biological Chemistry Structure of Aromatic Compounds Two substituents on a benzene ring could have three possible relationships ortho-: On adjacent carbons. meta-: One carbon between them. para-: On opposite sides of ring.
  • Slide 31
  • Organic and Biological Chemistry Functional Groups Term used to refer to parts of organic molecules where reactions tend to occur.
  • Slide 32
  • Organic and Biological Chemistry Alcohols Contain one or more hydroxyl groups, OH Named from parent hydrocarbon; suffix changed to -ol and number designates carbon to which hydroxyl is attached.
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  • Organic and Biological Chemistry Alcohols
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  • Organic and Biological Chemistry Ethers Tend to be quite unreactive. Therefore, they are good polar solvents.
  • Slide 35
  • Organic and Biological Chemistry Carbonyl Compounds Contain CO double bond. Include many classes of compounds.
  • Slide 36
  • Organic and Biological Chemistry Aldehydes At least one hydrogen attached to carbonyl carbon.
  • Slide 37
  • Organic and Biological Chemistry Ketones Two carbons bonded to carbonyl carbon.
  • Slide 38
  • Organic and Biological Chemistry Carboxylic Acids Have hydroxyl group bonded to carbonyl group. Tart tasting. Carboxylic acids are weak acids. CH 3 COOH
  • Slide 39
  • Organic and Biological Chemistry Carboxylic Acids
  • Slide 40
  • Organic and Biological Chemistry Esters Products of reaction between carboxylic acids and alcohols. Found in many fruits and perfumes.
  • Slide 41
  • Organic and Biological Chemistry Amides Formed by reaction of carboxylic acids with amines.
  • Slide 42
  • Organic and Biological Chemistry Amines Organic bases. Generally have strong, unpleasant odors.

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