Oral Language and Literacy Powerpoint
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<ul><li> 1. Oral Language</li></ul> <p> 2. THE NEFEC REACH PROJECTwas funded by a grant through Early Reading First 2007-2011. The information in this PowerPoint is provided by the NEFEC REACH Workshop Series Website. The information is a consolidation of professional learning presentations, current research and teacher contributions.The ERF REACH Lead Team is providing this early literacy information for early learning educators and professional leaders. We have provided the most current research as well as practical application ideas and suggestions for early learning educators to use in their classrooms. Please preview and adjust the information as needed for the purposes of your audience. 3. Oral Language is the foundation for literacy development. involves speaking and listening. is essential for children to gain knowledge about the world. 4. Importance of Oral Language Children who develop strong oral language skills during the preschool years create an important foundation for their later achievements in reading, especially reading comprehension (Storch & Whitehurst, 2002).Children who lag behind their peers in language development are at-risk for later reading difficulties (Catts, Fey, Tomblin, & Zhang, 2002).Vocabulary knowledge is strongly related to reading proficiency and overall academic success (Beck, McKeown,& Kucan, 2002) 5. Interactions Hart & Risley compared the mean number of interactions initiated per hour in each of the three groups.(Torgesen, 2005) 6. InteractionsHart & Risley also compared the mean number of minutes of interaction per hour in the three groups(Torgesen, 2005) 7. InteractionsPerhaps most striking were the differences in quality of interaction, when the affirmations vs. prohibitions per hour were compared. 8. Cumulative Language Experiences(Torgesen, 2005) 9. Cumulative Language Experiences Cumulative Words Spoken to Child (in millions)50403020Professional10Working Welfare0 012243648Age of child (in months)(Torgesen, 2005) 10. Stages in Language Development Birth to 1 year: First few months - babbling and cooing 8 months - repeated consonant and vowel sounds (i.e., da, da, or ma, ma) 8-12 months - first words spoken (i.e., Mommy)From 1 to 2 years One word utterances Use telegraphic speechFrom 2 to 3 years Continue to use telegraphic speech Sometimes use functional words(Morrow, 2007) 11. Stages in Language Development From 3 to 4 years Syntactic structures added include plurals and regular verbs Apply basic rules that govern language Talk about what they are doing while they are doing the activityFrom 5 to 6 years Their talk sounds like adult talk Knows that a word can have more than one meaning Creative in using language(Morrow, 2007) 12. Five Components of Oral Language Semantics Syntax (grammar) Morphology Phonology Pragmatics 13. Conversational Strategies & Peer ConversationsConversational Strategies: Clarify & Extend Question & Tell Think Aloud Peer-to-peer conversations: Talk about a book in pairs Have conversations in centers Talk about what they are eating during snack 14. Thing to Avoid When Talking to Children Correct childrens grammar or pronunciation Demand complete sentences Reject childrens home language Demand a quiet classroom(Bennett-Armistead, Duke, & Moses, 2005) 15. How Do We Increase Children s Vocabularies? Language-rich interactions with adults Reading frequently to children Use of interesting themes Incorporating the 5 best practices into your curriculum 16. Instruction: 5 Best Practices Shared book reading Songs, rhymes, and word play Storytelling Circle time Dramatic Play(Dickinson & Neuman, 2006) 17. Shared Book Reading Key Behaviors to Use During Interactive Readings: Prompt to be actively engaged Clarity & extend Expand & extend Explain the meanings Prompt to use new vocabulary 18. Songs, Rhymes, & Word Play Instructional framework: 1. Say/Sing 2. Recite & Invite 3. Replay(Roskos, Tabors, & Lenhart, 2009) 19. Storytelling Tips for Effective Storytelling: Begin with familiar stories (e.g., The Three Little Pigs) Practice, practice, practice Use props (e.g., flannel board) Use voice inflections Use repetitive phrases 20. Circle Time: Improving Whole Group Conversations Children do most of the talking Encourage many children to participate Look to another child for a response Use praise and encouraging comments 21. Dramatic Play: Sustaining the PlayProvide more props Ask open-ended questions Help negotiate problem solving Model play dialogue and scenarios by participating in childrens play. Observe and interact with children to monitor progress. Encourage child-to-child conversations 22. References Assel, M. A., Landry, S. H., Swank, P. R., & Gunnewig, S. (2007). An evaluation of curriculum, setting, and mentoring on the performance of children enrolled in prekindergarten. Reading and Writing: An Interdisciplinary Journal, 20(5), 463-494. Beck, I.L., McKeown, M.G., & Kucan, L. (2002). Bringing words to life: Robust vocabulary instruction. New York: The Guilford Press. Bennett-Armistead, V. S., Duke, N. K., Moses, A. M. (2005). Literacy and the youngest learner: Best practices for educators of children from birth to 5 . New York, NY: Scholastic. Bialystock, E. (2001). Metalinguistic aspects of bilingual processing. Annual Review of Applied Linguistics, 21, 169-181. Catts, H. W., Fey, M. E., Tomblin, J. B., & Zhang, X. (2002). A longitudinal investigation of reading outcomes in children with language impairments. Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, 45, 1142-1157. Dickinson, D. K. (2006). Large group and free-play times: Conversational settings supporting language and literacy development. In D. K. Dickinson, & P. O. Tabors (Eds.), Beginning literacy with language: Young children learning at home and at school (pp. 223-256). Baltimore, MD: Brookes. 23. References Dickinson, D. K. & Neuman, S. B. (Eds.). (2006). Handbook of early literacy research (Vol. 2). New York, NY: Guilford. Goswami, U. (2001). Early phonological development and the acquisition of literacy. In S. B. Neuman & D. K. Dickinson (Eds.), Handbook of early literacy research (pp. 111-125). New York: Guilford. Hart, B., & Risley, T. R. (1995). Meaningful differences in the everyday experience of young american children. Baltimore, MD: P.H. Brookes Publishing. Juel, C. (1988). Learning to read and write. A longitudinal study of 34 children from first through fourth grades. Journal of Educational Psychology, 80, 437-447. Mashburn, A. J., Justice, L. M., Downer, J. T., & Pianta, R. C. (2009). Peer effects on childrens language achievement during pre-kindergarten. Child Development, 80(3), 686-702. National Reading Panel. (2000). Teaching children to read: An evidence based assessment of the scientific research literature on reading and its implications for reading instruction . Washington DC: National Institute of Child Health and Human Development. Roskos, K. A., Tabors, P. O., & Lenhart, L. A. (2009). Oral language and early literacy in preschool. Newark, DE: International Reading Association. 24. References Storch, S. A., & Whitehurst, G. J. (2002). Oral language and code related precursors to reading: Evidence from a longitudinal structural model. Developmental Psychology, 38, 934-947. Torgesen, J. K. (2005). The urgent need to improve reading instruction and outcomes for our K-12 students. Retrieved from http://www.fcrr.org/science/pdf/torgesen/Servelunch.pdf</p>
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