optimizing digital microscope brochure
Post on 09-Dec-2015
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DESCRIPTIONOptimizing Digital Microscope Brochure
I N D E XDIGITAL MICROSCOPEGUIDE BOOK
1 MICROSCOPE STRUCTURE P4
2 LENS TYPES & LIGHT PRINCIPLES P6
3 ZOOM LENSES P8
4 ILLUMINATION METHODS & EFFECTS P10
5 HOW DIGITAL IMAGE PROCESSING WORKS P14
6 SIX ADDED VALUE FUNCTIONS - PART1 P16
7 DEPTH-OF-FIELD & DIGITAL FOCUSING TECHNIQUES
UTILIZING THE DIGITAL FOCUSING TECHNIQUE FOR DIGITAL MICROSCOPES
8 MAKING FULL USE OF THE 3D FUNCTION P22
9 SIX ADDED VALUE FUNCTIONS - PART2 P24
10 IMPROVING IMAGES OF DIGITAL MICROSCOPES-PART1
IMPROVING IMAGES OF DIGITAL MICROSCOPES-PART2
11 ABOUT NETWORKS
HOW TO UTILIZE A DIGITAL MICROSCOPE ON A NETWORK
HOW TO UTILIZE KEYENCE COMMUNICATION SOFTWARE
Digital microscopes employ advanced optics
and a CCD camera to record vivid color images
for observation on a monitor.
The digitized image can be quickly shared
via local networks or printed by the user.
Since the image can be displayed on a monitor,
multiple users can observe simultaneously.
In this document we will discuss
how digital microscopes offer superior functionality
when compared to conventional optical microscopes.
WHAT IS A DIGITAL MICROSCOPE?
DIGITAL MICROSCOPEGUIDE BOOK
Schematic of an ocular and objective lens
TYPES OF MICROSCOPES
OPTICAL MICROSCOPES & DIGITAL MICROSCOPES
A microscope is a device that produces a magnified image of an object. It has various applications from observation of microorganisms to the quality control of semiconductors. They are expansively used in electronic, chemical and pharmaceutical industries.Microscopes were invented in the sixteenth century. Early microscopes, which used the curvature of a convex lens, were called "simple microscopes". They helped people discover microorganisms which could not be seen with the naked eye. A compound microscope was invented to improve magnification by combining several lenses. It is composed of an ocular lens and an objective lens. The combination of these two lenses makes a magnified virtual image of the object. To clearly observe minute objects, microscopes have been continually improved. Optical and digital microscopes use a combination of several high-performance lenses with little aberration to solve today's difficult applications.
A microscope uses two convex lenses to magnify an object. An objective lens magnifies the image of an object to produce a magnified real image and an ocular lens additionally magnifies it five to twenty times to produce a virtual image.Thanks to advanced technologies, lenses can obtain high magnification levels. Some microscopes combine ten to twenty of these lenses in order to magnify an object. As lens quality improves, the magnification and image quality improves. (Less aberration)
An optical microscope uses an optical lens that is composed of several objective lenses to produce an image that is 100x, 200x or 300x larger than that of a single lens. It is suitable to observe cells of animals or plants. A digital microscope also uses an optical lens. With an optical microscope, an object is directly observed through an ocular lens. With a digital microscope, an object is captured by a CCD camera and observed on an LCD monitor. A digital microscope covers from low magnification of 0x to high magnification of 5000x and is expansively used in laboratories or production sites in various industries.
History of microscope
A microscope has a combination of ocular lenses and objective lenses to eliminate aberration. When you put an object under an objective lens and look into an ocular lens, you can observe a magnified image of the object.
Microscopes were invented by Dutch spectacle makers Hans Jansen and his son at the end of the sixteenth century. They accidentally found that a far away church was magnified when looked through two lenses. Their invention, "magic glasses", was very popular.
Ocular lens and objective lens
CCD stands for Charge Coupled Device. CCDs are arranged in a grid and convert the intensity of light into electronic signals. They work as if they were "electronic eyes".
When an object is at the focal position of a microscope, the object can be clearly observed. When the object is moved, it can still be clearly observed within a tolerance, which is called the depth-of-field. A lens that has a large depth-of-field can be said to be a high- performance lens.*See P.6 for a detailed explanation.
KEYENCE featuresHigh-resolution zoom lenses [VH-Z500]Observation magnification is 500 to 5000x with a 10x optical zoom lens.
MAGNIFICATION OF AN IMAGE
SHARPNESS OF AN IMAGE
When you observe the magnified surface of an object, it appears as a group of many bright and dark spots. The performance of a microscope is decided by how finely it can reproduce these spots. Typical factors that determine the performance of a microscope are 'resolution', 'magnification' and 'depth-of-field'. These factors are used to indicate how a microscope can magnify or sharply produce the image of an object. The higher the resolution and magnification, the sharper and larger the image. The deeper the depth-of-field, the wider the focus range.
A microscope magnifies an image by combining an ocular lens and an objective lens. The multiplied value of the two lenses' magnifications is the magnification of the microscope. Most microscopes are equipped with several objective lenses. When objective lenses of 10x, 20x and 50x are combined with an ocular lens of 10x, the magnifications of the microscope become 100x, 200x and 500x. To observe the cells of animals or plants, such magnifications are enough, but to observe semiconductors, electronic components, chemicals or medicines, a magnification of 1000x or even 5000x is often needed.
Although a microscope can produce a magnified image, it is not useful if the image is not clear. Resolution indicates the sharpness of an image produced by a microscope. Resolution is closely connected to the performance of a lens. It's necessary to understand first the structure of a lens, so the details about resolution will come later.
Resolution indicates the minimum distance between two close objects that a microscope can recognize as two separate objects. A high-resolution microscope can be said to be a high-performance microscope that can produce sharp images.
Coarse adjustment knob
Fine adjustment knob
Optical magnification is the ratio of the physical size of an object to its image that is produced by a microscope. The magnification of a digital microscope is the ratio of the physical size of an object to its image projected on a 15" monitor.
Camera/Fiber optic cable
15 LCD monitor
DIGITAL MICROSCOPEGUIDE BOOK
LENS TYPES & LIGHT PRINCIPLES2
Characteristics of convex and concave lenses
Gathers light to a point
Function of convex lenses
Function of concave lenses
Schematic of lights three primary colors
Schematic of incidence angle
Schematic of irregular reflection
PRINCIPLES OF LIGHT
Lenses are classified into convex lenses and concave lenses. A convex lens is thicker in the middle than at the edges while a concave lens is thinner in the middle than at the edges. A convex lens produces the magnified image of an object, and a concave lens produces the demagnified image of a near object. Eye glasses use such properties of lenses. Farsighted spectacles use convex lenses and nearsighted spectacles use concave lenses. When light passes through, a convex lens gathers the refractive light onto a point, but a concave lens spreads it. How do lenses magnify or demagnify the image of an object? To answer to this question, it is necessary to know the principles of light.
In order for you to see an object, light is indispensable. There are many light sources available; the sun, a lamp, or even a candle. When you see an object, light strikes and refracts on the surface of the object and passes into your eyes. Your brain reconstructs the image from the information provided by your eyes. There are cells that sense blue, red and green in the eyes and the brain can synthesize every color with these three colors, 'light's three primary colors'. When light with many colors strikes an object, certain colors are absorbed into the object and the rest reflects into your eyes. Also, when light strikes an object at a certain angle, it reflects at the same angle. The angle between incident light and the vertical line is called 'incidence angle', and that between reflective light and the vertical line is called 'reflection angle'. If the object is not flat, light reflects in all directions due to the irregularities of the object's surface. This is called irregular reflection.
REFRACTION OF LIGHT
When light strikes an object, a part of the light reflects and the rest is absorbed into the object. The refraction factors are different for different substances. For example, when the refraction factor of air is 1, that of water is 1.33. Due to the differen