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  • Desalination and Water Purification Research and Development Program Report No. 141

    Optimization of Chemical Cleaning of Organic-Fouled Reverse Osmosis Membranes

    U.S. Department of the Interior Bureau of Reclamation August 2009

  • REPORT DOCUMENTATION PAGE Form Approved OMB No. 0704-0188

    Public reporting burden for this collection of information is estimated to average 1 hour per response, including the time for reviewing instructions, searching existing data sources, gathering and maintaining the data needed, and completing and reviewing this collection of information. Send comments regarding this burden estimate or any other aspect of this collection of information, including suggestions for reducing this burden to Department of Defense, Washington Headquarters Services, Directorate for Information Operations and Reports (0704-0188), 1215 Jefferson Davis Highway, Suite 1204, Arlington, VA 22202-4302. Respondents should be aware that notwithstanding any other provision of law, no person shall be subject to any penalty for failing to comply with a collection of information if it does not display a currently valid OMB control number. PLEASE DO NOT RETURN YOUR FORM TO THE ABOVE ADDRESS.

    T1. REPORT DATE (DD-MM-YYYY) September 1, 2008

    T2. REPORT TYPE Final

    T3. DATES COVERED (From - To) October 2005 to September 2008

    5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Agreement No. 05-FC-81-1147

    5b. GRANT NUMBER

    T4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Optimization of Chemical Cleaning of Organic-Fouled Reverse Osmosis Membranes

    5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER

    5d. PROJECT NUMBER

    5e. TASK NUMBER Task A

    6. AUTHOR(S) Wui Seng Ang and Menachem Elimelech

    5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER

    7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) Department of Chemical Engineering Environmental Engineering Program Yale University 9 Hillhouse Ave., New Haven, Connecticut 06511

    8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER

    10. SPONSOR/MONITORS ACRONYM(S)

    9. SPONSORING / MONITORING AGENCY NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) U.S. Department of the Interior Bureau of Reclamation, Denver Federal Center PO Box 25007, Denver CO 80225-0007

    11. SPONSOR/MONITORS REPORT NUMBER(S)

    DWPR Report No. 141 12. DISTRIBUTION / AVAILABILITY STATEMENT

    Available from the National Technical Information Service Operations Division, 5285 Port Royal Road, Springfield VA 22161 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES Report can be downloaded from Reclamation Web site: www.usbr.gov/pmts/water/publications/reports.html

    14. ABSTRACT (Maximum 200 words) The effects of individual organic foulant and mixtures containing several types of foulants in the absence and presence of Ca2+ on the fouling of reverse osmosis (RO) membranes are investigated. Alginate, bovine serum albumin, Suwannee River natural organic matter, and octanoic acid are selected as model foulants. Sodium hydroxide, sodium chloride, disodium ethylenediaminetetraacetate, and sodium dodecyl sulfate are used as cleaning agents. The effect of cleaning agent concentration on the reduction of the intermolecular adhesion force of organic foulants is investigated using atomic force microscopy, so as to investigate the chemical reactivity of the cleaning agent with the foulants. The effect of single and dual cleaning agents on the chemical cleaning of RO membranes fouled by waste water effluent is also explored.

    15. SUBJECT TERMS AFM, BOD, BSA, EDTA, SRNOM, ultrafiltration, biodegradable oxygen demand, microfiltration, foulants, reverse osmosis, cleaning agents

    16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 19a. NAME OF RESPONSIBLE PERSON Kenneth Yokoyama

    a. REPORT U

    b. ABSTRACT U

    c. THIS PAGE U

    17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT

    SAR

    18. NUMBER OF PAGES

    1076 19b. TELEPHONE NUMBER (include area code)303-445-2014

    Standard Form 298 (Rev. 8/98) Prescribed by ANSI Std. 239-18

  • U.S. Department of the Interior Bureau of Reclamation Technical Service Center Water and Environmental Resources Division Water Treatment Engineering Research Group Denver, Colorado August 2009

    Desalination and Water Purification Research and Development Program Report No. 141

    Optimization of Chemical Cleaning of Organic-Fouled Reverse Osmosis Membranes

    Prepared for Reclamation Under Agreement No. 05-FC-81-1147

    by

    Wui Seng Ang Menachem Elimelech

    Department of Chemical Engineering Environmental Engineering Program Yale University New Haven, Connecticut

  • Disclaimer

    The views, analysis, recommendations, and conclusions in this report are those of the authors and do not represent official or unofficial policies or opinions of the United States Government, and the United States takes no position with regard to any findings, conclusions, or recommendations made. As such, mention of trade names or commercial products does not constitute their endorsement by the United States Government.

    MISSION STATEMENTS

    The mission of the Department of the Interior is to protect and provide access to our Nation's natural and cultural heritage and honor our trust responsibilities to Indian tribes and our commitments to island communities.

    The mission of the Bureau of Reclamation is to manage, develop, and protect water and related resources in an environmentally and economically sound manner in the interest of the American public.

  • iii

    Acknowledgement This study was funded by the U.S. Department of the Interior, Bureau of Reclamation, Desalination and Water Purification Research and Development Program (Award No. 05-FC-81-1147). The LFC-1 membranes were provided by Hydranautics.

  • v

    Acronyms and Abbreviations AFM atomic force microscopy ATR-FTIR attenuated total reflection Fourier infrared spectroscopy BOD biodegradable oxygen demand BSA bovine serum albumin CMC critical micelle concentration CML carboxylate modified latex cm centimeter cm/s centimeter per second DI dionized (usually refers to water) DLS dynamic light scattering EDTA disodium ethylenediaminetetraacetate EfOM effluent organic matter HCl hydrochloric acid L liter M molar MF microfiltration mg/L milligrams per liter mL milliliter mM millimolar mN/m millinewton per meter NaCl sodium chloride NaOH sodium hydroxide NF nanofiltration nM nanomolar nM/m nanomolar per meter NOM natural organic matter OA octanoic acid RO reverse osmosis SA sodium alginate SDS sodium dodecyl sulfate SEM scanning electron microscope SRNOM Suwannee River natural organic matter UF ultrafiltration UV ultraviolet

  • vi

    Acronyms and Abbreviations (continued) UV-Vis ultraviolet-visible % percent m micrometer m/s micrometer per second

  • vii

    Table of Contents

    Page

    Acknowledgement ......................................................................................... iii Acronyms and Abbreviations ........................................................................ v 1. Executive Summary ................................................................................ 1 2. Background ............................................................................................. 3 3. Conclusions and Recommendations........................................................ 7 4. Chemical and Physical Aspects of Cleaning of Polysaccharide fouled RO Membraness........................................................................... 9

    4.1 Chemical Aspects of Cleaning........................................................ 9 4.1.1 Effect of Cleaning Solution Type ....................................... 9 4.1.2 Effect of Cleaning Solution pH........................................... 11 4.1.3 Effect of Cleaning Chemical Dose ..................................... 12 4.1.4 Effect of Organic Foulant Composition.............................. 14

    4.2 Physical Aspects of Cleaning.......................................................... 17 4.2.1 Effect of Cleaning Time...................................................... 17 4.2.2 Effect of Crossflow Velocity .............................................. 19 4.2.3 Effect of Temperature ......................................................... 19

    4.3 Relating Cleaning Efficiency to Measured Adhesion Forces ......... 21 4.4 Effective Cleaning Requires Favorable Chemical and

    Physical Interactions ....................................................................... 22 4.5 Conclusion ...................................................................................... 23

    5. Cleaning of RO Membranes Fouled by Mixtures of Organic Foulants ..................................................................................... 27

    5.1 Fouling Runs................................................................................... 27 5.2 Cleaning Data.................................................................................. 31

    5.2.1 Single Cleaning Agent ........................................................ 31 5.3 Foulant-foulant Intermolecular Adhesion Forces ........................... 35

    5.3.1 Effect of Ca2+ on Foulant-foulant Interaction of Individual and Combined Foulants..................................... 35 5.3.2 Effect of Cleaning Agents on Intermolecular Adhesion Force of Combined Foulants .............................. 38 5.3.3 Probing Adhesion Force Between Different Foulants Using New Protocol ............................................. 41

    5.4 ATR-FTIR.................................................................

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