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  • Opportunity of Low Cost Solution for Faecal Sludge Management to Improve Urban Sanitation

    Situation: Experience in Bangladesh

    Abu Hasnat Md. Maqsood Sinha Co-founder & Executive Director

    Waste Concern, Bangladesh

    www.wasteconcern.org

    Session 3. Achieving Total Sanitation in South Asian cities

    Policy Dialogue on Sustainable Urbanization in South

    Asia: Greening the Infrastructure Gap

    17-18 December, 2014

    New Delhi, India

  • Overview of the Presentation

    1. Solid Waste Management in Bangladesh

    2. Sanitation Situation in Bangladesh

    3. Background of Kushtia Municipality

    4. Faecal Sludge Management Situation in Bangladesh

    5. Problem of Solid and Faecal Sludge Waste Management

    6. Pilot Intervention on Faecal Sludge Management in Kushtia

    7. Key Findings

  • Location of Kushtia Municipality

    • Bangladesh has a population of over 154 million people, making it the largest least developed country in the world, by population Bangladesh has one of the highest population densities in the world (1,125 per sq km) and has been rapidly urbanizing.

    • Current estimated urban population 39 million, accounting for about 26% of the country’s total population, to about 116 million by 2040, accounting for about 50% of the country’s total population (BBS 2012).

    • There are 11 (eleven) city corporations throughout the country and 315 municipalities (pourashavas).

  • • Rapid urbanization in Bangladesh is creating an increasing strain on overburdened infrastructure, as well as more demand on limited public services.

    • Solid Waste Generation in Urban Areas: 20,000 tons/day

    • Organic Waste: 80%

    • Collection Efficiency of Waste: 50-60-%

    • Crude dumping of waste in low-lying areas is the most common method of disposal of waste

    • Organic waste management, therefore, is a key sub-sector of municipal waste management which deserves more attention.

    Solid Waste Management in Bangladesh

  • Negative Impacts of Unmanaged Waste

    LEACHATE Polluting Ground & Surface Water

    VERMINS Spreading more than

    40 Diseases

    METHANE GAS Bad Odor & Green House gas

    PROBLEMS OF SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT

  • • Urban sanitation remains also a major challenge in Bangladesh. Sanitation is the responsibility of the municipalities, who do not have necessary organizational and technical capacity to take up their role.

    • Conventional sewerage systems are absent in all urban areas except in parts of Dhaka city. Only 20% of the population of Dhaka is served by a highly expensive sewerage network; the rest use septic tanks, pit latrines, unhygienic latrines or none at all.

    • Although it is claimed that the urban sanitation coverage is 88% as of March 2009, the overall sanitation situation in all urban areas is far from satisfactory (Rahman, M.M, 2009).

    • Most households do have standard toilet facilities within premises but the sewage collected are discharged untreated directly into lakes, canals and rivers causing pollution and health hazards in the densely populated areas.

    Sanitation Situation in Bangladesh

    “Sanitation” means total sanitary condition for healthy living which includes hygienic latrine facilities, proper management of solid waste and proper disposal of household wastewater and storm water.

  • • At present there is no formal or environmentally sound faecal sludge collection and disposal system in Bangladesh.

    • Septic tanks and pits are not de-sludged regularly to keep them functional. These are occasionally emptied manually and dumped into the nearby drainage system, low lands, surface waters and into open environment.

    • Municipal authorities and the people in general, are not aware of the seriousness of the problem and therefore of the needs for improvement. Financial and operational capacity of the municipalities for improved faecal sludge collection, treatment and safe disposal are also limited.

    Faecal Sludge Management in Bangladesh

    Faecal sludge: Sludges are collected from so called on-site sanitation systems; such as pit latrines, non sewered public toilets, septic tanks

  • 46

    55

    25

    30

    19

    15

    10

    0

    0

    20

    40

    60

    80

    100

    1990 2012

    C o

    v e ra

    g e

    ( %

    )

    Urban sanitation trends

    Open defecation

    Other unimproved facilities

    Shared facilities

    Improved facilities

    30

    58

    15

    28

    15

    11

    40

    3

    0

    20

    40

    60

    80

    100

    1990 2012

    C o

    v e ra

    g e

    ( %

    )

    Rural sanitation trends

    Open defecation

    Other unimproved facilities

    Shared facilities

    Improved facilities

    33

    57

    17

    28

    16

    12

    34

    3

    0

    20

    40

    60

    80

    100

    1990 2012

    C o

    v e ra

    g e

    ( %

    )

    Total sanitation trends

    Open defecation

    Other unimproved facilities

    Shared facilities

    Improved facilities

    10

    7

    32 41

    0

    20

    40

    60

    80

    100

    1990 2005

    C o

    v e ra

    g e

    ( %

    )

    Urban sanitation trends

    Open defecation

    Other unimproved facilities

    Shared facilities

    Improved facilities

    0 0

    100 96

    0

    20

    40

    60

    80

    100

    1990 2005

    C o

    v e ra

    g e

    ( %

    )

    Rural sanitation trends

    Open defecation

    Other unimproved facilities

    Shared facilities

    Improved facilities

    2 2

    89 85

    0

    20

    40

    60

    80

    100

    1990 2005

    C o

    v e ra

    g e

    ( %

    )

    Total sanitation trends

    Open defecation

    Other unimproved facilities

    Shared facilities

    Improved facilities

    96 96

    4 4

    80

    100

    1995 2010

    C o

    v e ra

    g e

    ( %

    )

    Urban sanitation trends

    Open defecation

    Other unimproved facilities

    Shared facilities

    Improved facilities

    94 93

    6

    6

    80

    100

    1995 2010

    C o

    v e ra

    g e

    ( %

    )

    Rural sanitation trends

    Open defecation

    Other unimproved facilities

    Shared facilities

    Improved facilities

    96 96

    4 4

    80

    100

    1995 2010

    C o

    v e ra

    g e

    ( %

    )

    Total sanitation trends

    Open defecation

    Other unimproved facilities

    Shared facilities

    Improved facilities

    46

    55

    25

    30

    19

    15

    10

    0

    0

    20

    40

    60

    80

    100

    1990 2012

    C o

    v e ra

    g e

    ( %

    )

    Urban sanitation trends

    Open defecation

    Other unimproved facilities

    Shared facilities

    Improved facilities

    30

    58

    15

    28

    15

    11

    40

    3

    0

    20

    40

    60

    80

    100

    1990 2012

    C o

    v e ra

    g e

    ( %

    )

    Rural sanitation trends

    Open defecation

    Other unimproved facilities

    Shared facilities

    Improved facilities

    33

    57

    17

    28

    16

    12

    34

    3

    0

    20

    40

    60

    80

    100

    1990 2012

    C o

    v e ra

    g e

    ( %

    )

    Total sanitation trends

    Open defecation

    Other unimproved facilities

    Shared facilities

    Improved facilities

    Bangladesh Sanitation coverage estimates

    Urban (%) Rural (%) Total (%)

    1990 2012 1990 2012 1990 2012

    Improved facilities 46 55 30 58 33 57

    Shared facilities 25 30 15 28 17 28

    Other unimproved 19 15 15 11 16 12

    Open defecation 10 0 40 3 34 3

    Source: WHO/UNICEF JMP, 2014

    Estimated Trends of Sanitation Coverage in Bangladesh

    Urban Sanitation Trends

    Rural Sanitation Trends

    Total Sanitation Trends

    With the increase in sanitation coverage in urban areas using septic tanks and pit latrines it is expected that faecal sludge volume will increase considerably within a few years and if collection and disposal systems are not developed serious environmental degradation and associated health risk will increase.

  • Absence of Faecal Sludge Management

    • National Sanitation Strategy 2005, prepared by the Local Government Division of the Ministry of Ministry of Local Government, Rural Development & Cooperatives has set-up national sanitation goal to achieve 100% sanitation coverage by 2013.

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