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Open spaces, Green spaces, Parks, Urban lungs, Natural environment, land use


  • 1. Open SpacesPresented by:Prakash AryalSPRING Programme 2013/2014School of Urban and Regional PlanningUniversity of the Philippines Diliman, Quezon City

2. Presentation Outline What is Open Space? Different types of open spaces Its functions and uses Benefits and values of having open spaces How can we preserve open spaces Open space planning in The Philippines Summary 3. What it is? Land or open surface open to sky ! Surface not covered by impermeable surface!Characteristic Relatively free from development Vegetated to provide visual contrast to man madeenvironment It is much more than a leftover category of land.Source: Rye, R.D., 1998Open Spaces 4. Open SpacesWhat it is?...Physically, Open space is described as - Land not intensively developed for residential,commercial, industrial or institutional uses. Public or privately held land. Agricultural lands and forests. Undeveloped shorelines and scenic lands Public parks and preserves. Water bodies, wetlands, streams, floodplains.Source: H. Clough & Associates LLP,2007 5. Open SpacesOpen Spaces contains one or more of the followings- Rural landscape Ecological and environmentally sensitive areas Recreation areas TrailsSource: H. Clough & Associates LLP,2007 6. Ian McHarg,1967 identified 8 important typesof open space Surface water Marshes Flood plains Aquifers Aquifers recharge areas Steep lands Prime agriculture land Urban forest and wood landsSource: McHarg, L. I. (1967). 7. Types of Open spaces..A. Utility Open SpacesB. General open spacesC. Corridor open spaceD. Multi use open spaceSource: Rye, R.D., 1998 8. Types of Open spaces..A. Utility Open Spacesi. Resource lands- for production and extraction, eg.Forests, grazing areas, lakes and rivers for water supplyii. Urban utility space- Dam sites, reservoir, land fills,waste disposal area, treatment facilitiesiii. Flood control and drainage- flood plain, flood banks,watershed, drainage ways etc.iv. Reserves and preserves- forest, area for wildlife, landsfor future expansion etc.Source: Rye, R.D., 1998 9. Types of Open spacesB. General open spacesi. Wilderness areas- Scenic & ecological values etc.ii. Protected areas- controlled for development, coastlineand shore areas etc.iii. Natural parks- National parks, forests, city parks etc.iv. Urban parks- Zoos, botanical garden, urban forest, waterbodies, amphitheater etc.v. Recreational areas- golf courses, play grounds,swimming pools, picnic area Urban development open spaces- Green belts, setbacksand open space around buildings etc.Source: Rye, R.D., 1998 10. Types of Open spacesC. Corridor open space- Right of way spaces ofhighway, streets etc.D. Multi use open space- Campuses, private clubs withrecreation facilities, cemeteries & garden areas etc.Source: Rye, R.D., 1998 11. Function of open spaceAdequate open space is vital for proper functioning ofurban system.Functions To give structure, shape and form to the city. To provide space needed for recreation, preservescenic value, protect watershed, aquifers, naturalhabitats, flora and fauna and provide naturaldrainageSource: Rye, R.D., 1998 12. Benefits of open spaceA. Social benefits Interaction between man and nature, enjoyment,recreation etc.B. Aesthetic benefits Preserve natural beauty, improve ugliness, bufferingunpleasant view and disturbing spaces, visual relieffrom manmade cityscapes.C. Psychological Maintain emotional well beingSource: Rye, R.D., 1998 13. Benefits of open spaceD. Economic Spatial improvement are linked to cities economicfuture through development.E. Structuring development Buffer between conflicting land useF. Ecological process Adequate amount of carefully located spaces arenecessary for the improved management and use ofour essential natural resources, air and waterSource: Rye, R.D., 1998 14. The Value of Open Space There is value to preserving most types of openspace land uses, but the values tend to vary widelywith the size of the area, the proximity of the openspace to residences, the type of open space, and themethod of analysis. Both publicly held and privately held lands canprovide open space benefits, but because peoplewho do not directly own the land still enjoy thebenefits, open space is likely to be underprovided bythe private sector.Source: H. Clough & Associates LLP,2007 15. The Value of Open Space Beyond the benefits to private land owners Open spaceprovides a range of benefits to citizens of a community Parks and natural areas -recreation; wetlands and forests supply storm-water drainage andwildlife habitat; farms and forests provide aesthetic benefits tosurrounding residents. And in rapidly growing urban and suburban areas, anypreserved land can offer relief from congestion andother negative effects of development.Source: H. Clough & Associates LLP,2007 16. The Value of Open Space It also depends on the size and location of open spaces.(Small fragment open space or large open space in distant location.) use value- the benefit is related to seeing or using the openspace. ( such as having a pleasant view, experiencing improved water quality, orhaving increased opportunity for viewing wildlife.) direct use of the open space (without knowing that open space exists-alsocalled passive use values) People may get utility, or satisfaction, from knowing thatfarms on the periphery of an urban area exist as they havefor generations. 17. How can we preserve open spacesSituation Open spaces are competing with urban growth andare on the losing ends The first one sacrificing for development is openspaces Perception that open spaces like public parks do notproduce economic benefits Open spaces shouldnt be thought as residual spaces.Source: Rye, R.D., 1998 18. How can we preserve open spaces Economic efficiency is also necessary, analysis isneeded whether to invest on forest land, wet land oragriculture which is important? Target most valuableparcels so state and local governments, andconservation organizations, must figure out how much land to target for preservation,whether that land should be in private or publicownership where open space should be located, and whattypes of open space farms, forests, wetlands,parks, etc. are the most desirable.Source: H. Clough & Associates LLP,2007 19. Open space planning in philippines Functional open space- an important elementof CLUP Functional open spaces are lands that aredeliberately kept in their open character for theircontribution towards maintaining the amenityvalue of the environment.Local open space (LGUs are responsible to manage)- Communal forests, river banks, prime agriculturallands, historical sites, environmentally critical andhazardous areas could form part of open space.Source: Serote, 2004 20. Open space planning in philippines Protected areas are part of the open spacesystem. NIPAS protected areas are: Strict nature reserve Natural park Natural environment Wildlife sanctuary Protected landscape or seascape Resource reserve Natural biotic area Other categories established by national andinternational agreementsSource: Serote, 2004 21. Source: Serote, 2004Other protected areas are:1. Non-NIPAS Categories Second growth forest (>1000m &>50% slope) Mangroves and fish sanctuaries Buffer strips along river banks in forest, agricultural land,urban area etc.2. Environmentally constrained areas Areas prone to weather and water related hazards,vulnerable to earthquake-induced hazards, affected byvolcanic hazards and areas subject to erosion3. Protected agricultural areas4. Others Water sheds for domestic water supply source, Historicsites, Utility easements, Visual corridors with high aestheticvalues, Geothermal reserves 22. Environment and Natural Resources- Sectors andSub sectors for Ecological Profilinga. Landsi. Public landsii. Private landsiii. Ancestral domainb. Forest landsi. Protection forestii. Production forestc. Mineral landsi. Metallic mineral landsii. Non- metallic minerallandsd. Park , wild life and otherreservationse. Water resourcesi. Fresh waterii. Marine waterf. Air qualityg. Waste management areasi. Solidii. Liquidiii. Toxic and hazardousSource: DILG, 2008 23. Open SpaceSummary It is more than residual land. It is not physically intensively developed and can bepublic and private. Regardless of the ownership of the land almost everyone can benefit from the open space Adequate open space is vital for the functioning ofurban system Planning and regulatory framework of the Philippineshave given emphasis on conserving and protectingvarious types of open spaces. 24. We are crushing ourselves by crushingopen spacesStart planning by respecting the valueof open space! 25. Thank you!ReferencesM. Connell Virginia and W. Margaret, 2005, THE VALUE OF OPENSPACE: EVIDENCE FROM STUDIES OF NONMARKET, Resources for theFutureClough Harbour & Associates LLP,2007, Natural resources and openspaces conservation plan, Town of halfmoon, Saratoga County, New YorkMcHarg, L. I. (1967). Design with Nature. New York: AmericanMuseum of Natural History.Rye, R. D., Open spaces Development Plan of Quezon City,1998, MAThesis, School of Urban and Regional Planning, UP, DilimanRationalizing Local Planning System, A source book (2008) 1stedition, Department of interior and local government, Bureau of LocalGovernment DevelopmentSerote, E.M., Property, Patrimony & Territory, 2004, Foundations ofLand Use Planning in the Philippines, SURP-UPPDRF, UP, Quezon city