On the Chemical Crescent

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  • A city of s cen i c b e a u t y , N e w O r l e a n s has 151 w h a r v e s a n d t e rmina l s , o c c u p y i n g 20 mi les of w a t e r f ron tage . P o r t faci l i -t ies n o w h a v e a v a l u a -t i on of m o r e t h a n $300 m i l l i o n r a t e d first i n efficiency a n d e c o n o m y b y U . S. A r m y Eng inee r s

    On the Chemical Crescent New Orleans1 postwar chemical expansion exceeds

    $370 million; over $15-million payroll added since 1946

    H ISTORIC N E W ORLEANSsugar bowl of the nationis fast becoming a chemical center of the South. Already a counteipart of Houston's famous ship channel, the sprawling industry begins a t Reserve, 30 miles upriver, and ex-tends all the way down to Oak Point, 1 5 miles below New Orleans.

    New chemical plants, valued at more than $277 million, have moved into the area since 1946; the "old timers" have spent more than $94 million revamping and expanding their present facilities. A fact hard to believe by many residents the value of chemical industries added since the war now surpasses the total net worth of New Orleans' wharves and docks.

    An industry employing more than 10,200 people, with an annual payroll exceeding $36 million, these chemical plants consume more than 200 million cubic feet of natural gas daily, and more than 200 million gallons of water. Elec-trical requirements exceed 700,000 kw.-hr., more than enough to supply a city of 1.5 million people.

    A port second only to New York in value of imports and exports, the Cres-cent City is served by almost 100 steamship linesover 3000 ships regu-

    larly arrive and depart each year. Over 50 barge lines (excluding private car-riers) operate from New Orleans.

    Feeding the port, and contributing to the importance of the city as a distri-bution center, are nine major railroads, with systems of nearly 50,000 miles (20% of the nation's Class I t rackage). Overnight service is provided to major southern markets, and 24-hour freight service as far north as Chicago. Add to this eight regular passenger air lines, two trunk line railroads, and 46 motor freight linesboth common and con-tract carriersand you get a picture of the transportation network serving the Mid-South.

    Nowhere in the world is there greater op-portunity for the development of chemical industry than in Louisiana, where almost inexhaustible supplies of salt, sulphur, oil, and gas occur in close proximity.

    ARTHUR D. LITTLE

    Contributing to this great industrial expansion is the state's abundance of natural resources. Louisiana now ranks third in the nation's total petroleum pro-duction, second in natural gas, fourth in salt, second in sulfur, first in sugar. Major imports into New Orleans in-

    clude bauxite, petroleum, and petro-leum products , crude rubber, fertilizer materials, sugar, molasses, oils and fats (animal, fish, and vegetable) , and ni-trates.

    A remarkable expansion made b y the petroleum indoistry in this area has been one of the most important elements in its industrial progress. In recent years the petroleum industry has learned how to operate in wha t was once considered inaccessible marsh lands. More than 93 active fields, embracing more than 3000 oil and gas wells, exist within a 100-mile radius of the city.

    Sugar Cane Has Several Important Chemical a n d Materials By-Products

    The sugar industry, which attracted the first petroleum refineries by its con-sumption of fuel oil, has several impor-tant chemical and material by-products. Godchaux Sugars has a plant at Race-land recovering calcium-magnesium ac-onitate from sugar cane liquors and mo-lassesthe only commercial unit of its kind in the world. Aconitate is shipped to Dow Chemical for conversion into aconitic acid estersthe light-fastness agent for Saxan Wrap . Both custom and captive molasses are processed; some of the custom treating is per-formed "en rou te" to the final destina-tion. It's a customer choice deal, he may receive His own molasses in return, or other refined stocks from storage. Godchaux's cane mills at Reserve and Raceland utilize bagassesugar cane

    2676 C H E M I C A L A N D E N G I N E E R I N G N E W S

  • wastefor production of "Servall," a product sold for cattle and poultry litter, and horticulture humus. Its other product, "Camola," is a dehydrated material made from molasses and bagasse. The largest consumer of bagasse is Celotex a t Marrero, employing more than 2400 people engaged in the manufacture of wall board, insulating material, and soundproofing materials. Consumers of molasses, U. S. Industrial Chemicals (New Orleans) and Publicker (Westwego) produce ethyl alcohol by fermentation. Crude cane wax, -extracted from cane m u d in Cuba, is imported by Colonial Sugars at Gramerey for purification. Refined wax is used as a substitute for carnauba

    Aviation A lky la te Unit Converted To Commercial Cumene Production

    Located at Norco, about 25 miles up-river from New Orleans, Shell Oil operates a refinerybuilt in 1920which contributes heavily to the industrial activity oi St. Charles Parish. The refinery processes crude into all petroleum products except lubricating oils now lias storage facilities for more than 2 million barrels.

    During the war, Norco produced 1300 barrels per day of aviation alkylate from a plant designed for 500 barrels. By converting its polymeriza

    tion unit completely to cumene production, Norco became the first refinery in the world to produce commercial quantities of this Shell-developed ingredient.

    Largest in the plant's history, a $30 million modernization and expansion program is now under way to increase present capacity by approximately 50%. The refinery's crude throughput will go to 75,000 barrels per day; storage ^capacity to more than 4.6 million barrels. A large share of the expansion centers around a new catalytic cracking unit .

    Shell, in effect, produces lubricating oils, motor oils, and greases through its subsidiary company, International Lubricants, located in New Orleans. Competition is provided by Delta Petroleum, manufacturers of lube oils and greases, also in New Orleans. Add to this, production of similar products by Pan-Am Southern at nearby Destrehan, 18 miles upriver.

    Oronite's Oak Point plant , 15 miles south of New Orleans, s tarted its production of lube oil additives in 1943, and eventually supplanted its parent company's (Standard Oil of California) operations at Richmond, Calif.

    Plant capacity has been increased several fold since startup; the most recent expansion will be completed in August, at which time t h e plant will be

    able to supply additives to treat almost 20,000 barrels per day of lube oils. Recent diversification has carried Oronite into the production of gas odorants, nonionic dispersants for dry cleaning and laundering applications, fuel ofl dispersants, and algicides.

    Oil RefinersOld Timers In AreaExpand Facilities

    Noted for its fluid hydroforming unit the world's firstPan-Am Southern's refinery, constructed by Mexican Petroleum, has been in operation since 1914. Continuous production of asphalt was initiated in 1927, another first for the company. Destrehan, by the addition of more recent facilities, is now capable of blending 3 million pounds of solid grease, 5.5 million pounds of liquid grease, and 9.5 million gallons of motor oil per year.

    Dependent largely upon asphalt sales until 1953, Destrehan completed a major revamp and expansion program initiated in 1949. New facilities included a delayed coking unit, a Model IV cat cracking unit, sulfuric acid alkylation, and a fluid hydroformer. Changes in crude topping facilities increased the refinery's capacity to 30,000 barrels per day of crude. Destrehan claims another first commercial operationits Model IV cat cracker.

    Scale 1-500,000 I inch =8 statute miles

    (n produtlloB before the end of 1954. bln produttlon by orly 1955.

    V LU M E 3 2 , N O . 2 7 J U L Y 5, 1 9 5 4 2677

    wax

  • f ORLEANS INDUSTRIAL GROWTH ifdollars

    30O

    20O

    I0O

    New and Expanded Facilities: total manufacturing I I

    total chemical

    -en 1946 1947 1948 1949 1950 1953

    Products for domestic sales are shipped and piped to a six-state marketing territory-Alabama, Arkansas, Kentucky., Louisiana, Mississippi, and Tennessee; substantial quantities are exported. Present storage capacity for raw materials and products is about 3 million barrels-

    Largest Public Bulk Terminal Handles All Types of Oi l Products

    Largest public bulk terminal in the area, the General American Tank Storage Terminals, has been operating at Good Hope since 1925. Total capacity is 1.7 mulion barrels, with storage tanks in sizes ranging from 150 to 80,000 barrels. The terminal handles all types of petroleum, fish, and vegetable oil products. Oils are drummed, canned, and eased for both domestic and foreign trade. Bonded materials can be stored at the terminal.

    Coastwise Petroleum, with executive and scales offices in Baltimore, operates a refinery for purification of benzene and coal tar distillates inside the General American terminal grounds. In perfoxming these operations, the company employs 13 men, processes more than 1 million gallons of distillates per montli. Approximately 2000 tons of sulfuric acid and 400 tons of caustic soda are consumed annually in refining raw stocks. Sulfuric acid sludge is shipped away and subsequently regenerated.

    Ingram Oil & Refining at Chalmette refines South Louisiana crudes for production of premium and regular grade gasolfcnes, kerosine, Diesel fuel, burner ois, and heavy fuels. Representing an investment of about $4 million, this latest newcomer started its units on

    stream during February and March. Still in the throes of initial operation, th