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- 1. UNIT4 :I ) WORK STUDY
- METHOD STUDY
- WORK MEASUREMENT
2. METHOD STUDY :EXAMPLE Elmnt No., Element Symbol Time (Minutes) Remarks 1 Put on computer Op 0.2 2 Wait W 0.1 3 Computer is on Op 0.1 4 Msg(Fan Failure) Op 0.05 5 CheckMsg Op 0.1 6 Telephone Technician Op 0.2 7 Wait W 15.0 8 Technician Checks Ins 1.2 9 Tells to send to Lab Op 0.2 10 Telephone for attender Op 0.1 3. Elmnt No., Element Symbol Time (Minutes) Remarks 11 Wait W 30.0 12 Attendertransports Trans 3.2 13 On Repair Table Storage 1440.0 14 Technician inspects Ins 5.6 15 Tech removes Fan Op 7.2 16 Walks to stores Trans 3.0 17 Waits W 9.0 18 Takes new fan,signs Op 5.0 19 Walks to Lab Trans 3.1 20 Fixes new fan O 8.2 4. Elmnt No., Element Symbol Time (Minutes) Remarks 21 Inspects Ins 2.5 22 Calls for attender O 1.2 23 Waiting W 10.5 24 Attender carries it Trans 2.2 25 Connect to system O 1.2 26 Put on system O 0.3 27 Inspects fan working Ins 2.2 28 Start work O 0.2 5. Operations 13 24.15 Inspections 5 11.6 Transportns 4 11.5 Delays 5 64.6 Storage 1 1440.0 Total 1551.85 25.86 Hrs 6. UNIT4 :I ) WORK STUDY
- Work study :It is defined as that body of knowledge concerned with theANALYSIS OF WORK METHODS AND EQUIPMENTused in performing a job, theDESIGN OF AN OPTIMUM WORK METHODand theSTANDARDISATION OF PROPOSED WORK METHODS .
- The purpose of work study is to determine the best or most effective method of accomplishing a necessary operation
- Time study and motion study are results of practices developed by F.W. Taylor, Frank and LillianGilbreth.
7. I.1 )METHOD STUDY
- Method study is also known as methods improvement, that eliminates wasteful and inefficient motions.
- Industrial EngineeringWork StudyMethod StudyProcess ChartsProcess Charts Symbols
- METHOD STUDY is the systematic recording and critical examination of EXISTING and PROPOSED WAYS of DOING WORK as a means of DEVELOPING andAPPLYING EASIER AND MORE EFFECTIVE METHODS and REDUCING COSTS (B.S.I)
- 6 steps Method study procedure
8. METHOD STUDY
- 6 steps Method study procedure
9. METHOD STUDY
- METHOD STUDY USE OFPROCESS CHARTS:
- Process Charts Symbols are utilized for simplifying the Recording of the Method.
- The symbols represent different types of events.
- Circle to represent Operation , Square for Inspection, Arrow for Transport, Triangle for Storage andD for Delay ( first two provide value addition
- Process Charts used in Method Study
- Outline process chart/Operation process chart/Flow process charts/Two handed process chart/Multiple activity chart/The man machine chart or worker-machine chart /Flow diagram/String diagram/SIMO chart
10. MOTION STUDY&MICRO MOTION STUDY
- Motion study isthe science of eliminating wastefulness resulting from using unnecessary; ill-directed and inefficient motion. The aim of motion study is to find and perpetuate the scheme of least waste methods of labour.
- Micro motion study provides a valuable technique for making minute analysis of those operations that are short in cycle, contain rapid movements and involve high production over a long period of time.
- Micro-motions are also known asTherbligs.
11. THERBLIGS 1.Search (Sr)2.Select (St)3.Grasp (G) 4.Transport empty (TE) 5.Transport loaded (TL) 6.Hold (H) 7.Release load (RL)8.Position (P) 9.Pre-position (PP) 10.Inspect (I)11.Assemble (A)12.Disassemble (DA) 13.Use (U) 14.Unavoidable delay (UD) 15.Avoidable delay (AD) 16.Plan (Pn) 17.Rest for overcoming fatigue (R) 18.Find (F) 12. PRINCIPLES OF MOTION ECONOMY&METHOD STUDY TOOLS
- Principles of motion economyare divided into three groups.
- Effective use of the operator
- Arrangement of the workplace
- Tools and equipment
- Method StudyTools:
- Motion study, Facilities Layout, Work Simplification, Flow process Charts, Ergonomics
13. I.2 )WORK MEASUREMENT
- This form an important part of work study, itself a sub part of Industrial Engineering.
- The dependency may be shown as
- Industrial EngineeringWork StudyWork Measurement(Time Study)
- TIME STUDY is a work measurement technique for recording the time and rating for the elements of a specified job carried out under specified conditions and for analyzing the data so as to obtain the time necessary for carrying out the job at a defined level of performance by a qualified and trained worker (B.S.I)
- Qualified worker
14. WORK MEASUREMENT
- TECHNIQUES :
- Direct Time Study/ Synthesis Method/
- Analytical Estimating./Pre determined Motion Time System (PMTS)./Work sampling or Activity Sampling or Ratio Delay Method.
- Work measurementinvolves7 STEPS.
- 1.Break the job into elements/2.Record the observed time for each element by means of either time study, synthesis or analytical estimating./3.Establish elemental time values by extending observed time into normal time for each elementBY APPLYING A RATING FACTOR ./4.Assess relaxation allowance for personal needs and physical and mental fatigue involved in carrying out each element./5.Add the relaxation allowance time to the normal time for each element to arrive at the work content.
- /6.Determine the frequency of occurrences of each element in the job, multiply the work content of each element by its frequency ( i.e.,number of time the element occurs in the job) and add up the times to arrive at the work content for the job./7.Add contingency allowance if any to arrive at the standard time to do the job.
15. 5METHODS OFWORK MEASUREMENT
- 1.TIME STUDY
- Time study is concerned with the determination of the amount of time required to perform a unit of work.
- Objective of time study is to establish the standard time.
- Time study by stop watch: The steps involved are
- Select the job to be studied
- Select the worker to be studied
- Conducting stop watch time study
- SYNTHESIS METHOD
- Synthesis Method: Building up the time required to do a job at a defined level of performance.
- ANALYTICAL ESTIMATING
- Analytical Estimating: Used to determine the time values for jobs having long and non-repetitive operations.
- PREDETERMINED MOTION TIME SYSTEM (PMTS)
- PMTS: Normal times are established for basic human motions.
16. METHODS OFWORK MEASUREMENT
- WORK SAMPLING OR ACTIVITY SAMPLING OR RATIO-DELAY METHOD
- Work sampling helps determine allowances for inclusion in standard times.
- The work sampling study consists of essentially the following steps:
- 1.Determine the objective of the study, including definitions of the states of activity to be observed.
- 2.Plan the sampling procedure including:
- (a) An estimate of the percentage of time being devoted to eachphase of the activity.
- (b) The setting of accuracy limits.
- (c) An estimation of the number of observations required.
- (d) The selection of the length of the study period and theprogramming of the number of readings over this period.
- (e)The establishment of the mechanics of making theobservations, the route to follow and the recording of data.
- 3.Collect the data as planned.
- 4.Process the data and present the results.
17. METHOD STUDY-BENEFITS&WORK MEASUREMENT -BENEFITS
- Method Study-Benefits:
- ProductivityImprovement , Further method Improvements, Optimisation of Resources, Cost Reduction, Profitability improvement, Competitive edge, Industrial growth, Improvement of Countrys Economy
- Work Measurement -Benefits:
- Productivity measurement & Improvement , Man power planning, Design of Wage Incentive Schemes, Cost Budgetting , Performance Measurement, PPC, M/C capacity planning, Further method Improvements
18. WORK MSMNT PROBLEMS
- Q1 ) Observed timing=20 Seconds ,compute Normal/Basic time ?
- If Rating is 80%, Normal/Basic time= 20*0.80=16 Secs
- If Rating is 125%& 100%,,respective Normal/Basic times: 20*1.25=25 Secs &20*1.00=20 Secs
- Q1.1) Normal/Basictiming=20 Seconds;
- If Rating is 80%, Observed time= 20/0.80=25 Secs
- If Rating is 125%/100%, respective Observed time= 201.25=16 Secs& 20/1.00=20 Secs
- Q2)OT=1.53 Mins, R=8