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  • 1. UNIT4 :I ) WORK STUDY
    • METHOD STUDY
  • &
  • WORK MEASUREMENT

2. METHOD STUDY :EXAMPLE Elmnt No., Element Symbol Time (Minutes) Remarks 1 Put on computer Op 0.2 2 Wait W 0.1 3 Computer is on Op 0.1 4 Msg(Fan Failure) Op 0.05 5 CheckMsg Op 0.1 6 Telephone Technician Op 0.2 7 Wait W 15.0 8 Technician Checks Ins 1.2 9 Tells to send to Lab Op 0.2 10 Telephone for attender Op 0.1 3. Elmnt No., Element Symbol Time (Minutes) Remarks 11 Wait W 30.0 12 Attendertransports Trans 3.2 13 On Repair Table Storage 1440.0 14 Technician inspects Ins 5.6 15 Tech removes Fan Op 7.2 16 Walks to stores Trans 3.0 17 Waits W 9.0 18 Takes new fan,signs Op 5.0 19 Walks to Lab Trans 3.1 20 Fixes new fan O 8.2 4. Elmnt No., Element Symbol Time (Minutes) Remarks 21 Inspects Ins 2.5 22 Calls for attender O 1.2 23 Waiting W 10.5 24 Attender carries it Trans 2.2 25 Connect to system O 1.2 26 Put on system O 0.3 27 Inspects fan working Ins 2.2 28 Start work O 0.2 5. Operations 13 24.15 Inspections 5 11.6 Transportns 4 11.5 Delays 5 64.6 Storage 1 1440.0 Total 1551.85 25.86 Hrs 6. UNIT4 :I ) WORK STUDY

  • Work study :It is defined as that body of knowledge concerned with theANALYSIS OF WORK METHODS AND EQUIPMENTused in performing a job, theDESIGN OF AN OPTIMUM WORK METHODand theSTANDARDISATION OF PROPOSED WORK METHODS .
  • The purpose of work study is to determine the best or most effective method of accomplishing a necessary operation
  • Time study and motion study are results of practices developed by F.W. Taylor, Frank and LillianGilbreth.

7. I.1 )METHOD STUDY

  • Method study is also known as methods improvement, that eliminates wasteful and inefficient motions.
  • Industrial EngineeringWork StudyMethod StudyProcess ChartsProcess Charts Symbols
  • METHOD STUDY is the systematic recording and critical examination of EXISTING and PROPOSED WAYS of DOING WORK as a means of DEVELOPING andAPPLYING EASIER AND MORE EFFECTIVE METHODS and REDUCING COSTS (B.S.I)
  • 6 steps Method study procedure
    • Select/Record/Examine/Develop/Install/Maintain

8. METHOD STUDY

  • 6 steps Method study procedure
    • Select
    • Record
    • Examine
    • Develop
    • Install
    • Maintain

9. METHOD STUDY

  • METHOD STUDY USE OFPROCESS CHARTS:
  • Process Charts Symbols are utilized for simplifying the Recording of the Method.
  • The symbols represent different types of events.
  • Circle to represent Operation , Square for Inspection, Arrow for Transport, Triangle for Storage andD for Delay ( first two provide value addition
  • Process Charts used in Method Study
    • Outline process chart/Operation process chart/Flow process charts/Two handed process chart/Multiple activity chart/The man machine chart or worker-machine chart /Flow diagram/String diagram/SIMO chart

10. MOTION STUDY&MICRO MOTION STUDY

  • Motion study isthe science of eliminating wastefulness resulting from using unnecessary; ill-directed and inefficient motion. The aim of motion study is to find and perpetuate the scheme of least waste methods of labour.
  • Micro motion study provides a valuable technique for making minute analysis of those operations that are short in cycle, contain rapid movements and involve high production over a long period of time.
  • Micro-motions are also known asTherbligs.

11. THERBLIGS 1.Search (Sr)2.Select (St)3.Grasp (G) 4.Transport empty (TE) 5.Transport loaded (TL) 6.Hold (H) 7.Release load (RL)8.Position (P) 9.Pre-position (PP) 10.Inspect (I)11.Assemble (A)12.Disassemble (DA) 13.Use (U) 14.Unavoidable delay (UD) 15.Avoidable delay (AD) 16.Plan (Pn) 17.Rest for overcoming fatigue (R) 18.Find (F) 12. PRINCIPLES OF MOTION ECONOMY&METHOD STUDY TOOLS

  • Principles of motion economyare divided into three groups.
    • Effective use of the operator
    • Arrangement of the workplace
    • Tools and equipment
    • Method StudyTools:
  • Motion study, Facilities Layout, Work Simplification, Flow process Charts, Ergonomics

13. I.2 )WORK MEASUREMENT

  • This form an important part of work study, itself a sub part of Industrial Engineering.
  • The dependency may be shown as
  • Industrial EngineeringWork StudyWork Measurement(Time Study)
  • Def:
  • TIME STUDY is a work measurement technique for recording the time and rating for the elements of a specified job carried out under specified conditions and for analyzing the data so as to obtain the time necessary for carrying out the job at a defined level of performance by a qualified and trained worker (B.S.I)
  • Qualified worker

14. WORK MEASUREMENT

  • TECHNIQUES :
    • Direct Time Study/ Synthesis Method/
    • Analytical Estimating./Pre determined Motion Time System (PMTS)./Work sampling or Activity Sampling or Ratio Delay Method.
  • Work measurementinvolves7 STEPS.
  • 1.Break the job into elements/2.Record the observed time for each element by means of either time study, synthesis or analytical estimating./3.Establish elemental time values by extending observed time into normal time for each elementBY APPLYING A RATING FACTOR ./4.Assess relaxation allowance for personal needs and physical and mental fatigue involved in carrying out each element./5.Add the relaxation allowance time to the normal time for each element to arrive at the work content.
  • /6.Determine the frequency of occurrences of each element in the job, multiply the work content of each element by its frequency ( i.e.,number of time the element occurs in the job) and add up the times to arrive at the work content for the job./7.Add contingency allowance if any to arrive at the standard time to do the job.

15. 5METHODS OFWORK MEASUREMENT

  • 1.TIME STUDY
  • Time study is concerned with the determination of the amount of time required to perform a unit of work.
  • Objective of time study is to establish the standard time.
  • Time study by stop watch: The steps involved are
  • Select the job to be studied
  • Select the worker to be studied
  • Conducting stop watch time study
  • SYNTHESIS METHOD
  • Synthesis Method: Building up the time required to do a job at a defined level of performance.
  • ANALYTICAL ESTIMATING
  • Analytical Estimating: Used to determine the time values for jobs having long and non-repetitive operations.
  • PREDETERMINED MOTION TIME SYSTEM (PMTS)
  • PMTS: Normal times are established for basic human motions.

16. METHODS OFWORK MEASUREMENT

  • WORK SAMPLING OR ACTIVITY SAMPLING OR RATIO-DELAY METHOD
  • Work sampling helps determine allowances for inclusion in standard times.
  • The work sampling study consists of essentially the following steps:
  • 1.Determine the objective of the study, including definitions of the states of activity to be observed.
  • 2.Plan the sampling procedure including:
    • (a) An estimate of the percentage of time being devoted to eachphase of the activity.
    • (b) The setting of accuracy limits.
    • (c) An estimation of the number of observations required.
    • (d) The selection of the length of the study period and theprogramming of the number of readings over this period.
    • (e)The establishment of the mechanics of making theobservations, the route to follow and the recording of data.
  • 3.Collect the data as planned.
  • 4.Process the data and present the results.

17. METHOD STUDY-BENEFITS&WORK MEASUREMENT -BENEFITS

  • Method Study-Benefits:
  • ProductivityImprovement , Further method Improvements, Optimisation of Resources, Cost Reduction, Profitability improvement, Competitive edge, Industrial growth, Improvement of Countrys Economy
  • Work Measurement -Benefits:
  • Productivity measurement & Improvement , Man power planning, Design of Wage Incentive Schemes, Cost Budgetting , Performance Measurement, PPC, M/C capacity planning, Further method Improvements

18. WORK MSMNT PROBLEMS

  • Q1 ) Observed timing=20 Seconds ,compute Normal/Basic time ?
  • If Rating is 80%, Normal/Basic time= 20*0.80=16 Secs
  • If Rating is 125%& 100%,,respective Normal/Basic times: 20*1.25=25 Secs &20*1.00=20 Secs
  • Q1.1) Normal/Basictiming=20 Seconds;
  • If Rating is 80%, Observed time= 20/0.80=25 Secs
  • If Rating is 125%/100%, respective Observed time= 201.25=16 Secs& 20/1.00=20 Secs
  • Q2)OT=1.53 Mins, R=8