Oculus Vr a Virtual Reality Seminar Report

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a seminar on oculus vr as we know oculus vr is a virtual reality based technology ...




1. INTRODUCTIONYou pull a helmet over your head, and suddenly, you're inside avirtualworld that seems completely lifelike. You can run around, fight, race and fly, doing things gamers have never done before. What was once the stuff of Hollywood fantasy is now becoming a reality? A startup called Oculus VR is creating personal virtual-reality goggles called the Oculus Rift for everyone to use. Virtual reality isn't new. There have been attempts to create virtual worldssince the '60s, and the idea really took off in the '90s, spawning games that were clunky and heavy, likeNintendo's 1995 disaster Virtual Boy.But it wasn't until the Oculus Rift that virtual reality became something attainable and, perhaps more importantly, desirable for consumers.The headset fits over the eyes, completely covering the wearer's field of vision. Unlike the virtual reality headsets of the past, it's light, with a screen that's easy to look at (even for extended gaming sessions), since it's set up to appear exactly as if the virtual world was being seen in real life. And, happily, the Oculus Rift website insistsit's designed to be affordable for the average consumer.Palmer Luckey, the founder of Oculus, developed the idea of creating a new head-mounted display that was both more effective than what is currently on the market, and inexpensive for gamers. For developers, the Oculus Rift platform is a playground, allowing them to put themselves into any virtual world they can imagine, whether it's a favorite game like Skyrim (Warning: NSFW language up ahead) or simply a situation you'll likely never experience in real life.Virtual Reality can be defined as an environment which is simulated by a computer system. The environment can mimic the real world, or it can be a simulation of a completely imaginary world. The term Virtual (or Artificial) Reality is attributed to Myron Krueger, an American computer artist in the 1970s. It has been recorded as far back as 1938 however, by the French artist Antonin Arnaud, who coined the phrase while discussing his theatre shows. The first virtual reality equipment, which attempted to physically realize the concept, was developed by Morton Heilig in the 1950s. He created the Sensorama machine, which contained a moving seat, along with 3-D moving images, smell, sound, and even wind.

Figure 1: SENSORAMAMADISON, Wisconsin (January 21, 2014) Almost three decades before Building Information Modeling (BIM) would go mainstream, the term Virtual Building was used in the earliest implementation of BIM through Graphisofts Archi CAD debut in 1987.

Figure 2: inside view from oculus riftSince then, the concept hasnt changed, but visualization technology has advanced to the point where designers, engineers, contractors, and building owners can become so immersed in the virtual building model that they feel as if theyre actually there. Technologies like the Unity3D game engine and the new $300 Oculus Rift virtual reality headset are making it possible.

Figure 3: view of a virtual realityVR is an immersive medium. It creates the sensation of being entirely transported into a virtual (or real, but digitally reproduced) three-dimensional world, and it can provide a far more visceral experience than screen-based media. Enabling the minds continual suspension of disbelief requires particular attention to detail. It can be compared to the difference between looking through a framed window into a room, versus walking through the door into the room and freely moving around.

The Oculus Rift is the first VR system of its kind: an affordable, high-quality device with a wide field of view and minimal lag. Until now, access to VR has been limited primarily to research labs, governments, and corporations with deep pockets. With the Oculus Rift, developers, designers, and artists are now leading the way toward delivering imaginative realms to a global audience.

If VR experiences ignore fundamental best practices, they can create simulator sicknessa combination of eyestrain, disorientation, and nausea. Historically, many of these problems have been attributed to sub-optimal VR hardware variables, such as system latency. The Oculus Rift represents a new generation of VR devices, one that resolves many issues of earlier systems. But even with a flawless hardware implementation, poorly designed content can still lead to an uncomfortable experience.Because VR has been a fairly esoteric and specialized discipline, there are still aspects of it that havent been studied enough for us to make authoritative statements. In these cases, we put forward informed theories and observations and indicate them as such. User testing is absolutely crucial for designing engaging, comfortable experiences; VR as a popular medium is still too young to have established conventions on which we can rely. We count on you, the community of Oculus Rift developers, to provide feedback and help us mature these evolving VR best practices and principles.


Figure 4: oculus head mounted kitNowadays computer graphics is used in many domains of our life. The thought of virtual reality has been around since 1965, when Ivan Sutherland expressed his ideas of creating virtual or imaginary worlds. At MIT, he conducted experiments with three dimensional displays. In 1969, he developed the first system to surround people in three dimensional displays of information. Between the '70's and late '80's, the concept of virtual reality was mainly used by the United States. The military used it as flight simulators to train pilots. The other countries in the world did not show any interest in this technology until the late 1980's. Since then, virtual reality has developed in many ways to become an emerging technology of our time.

3: HOW DOES THE OCULUS RIFT WORKS?Picture a set of ski goggles in which a large cell phone screen replaces the glass. The screen displays two images side by side, one for each eye. A set of lenses is placed on top of the screen, focusing and reshaping the picture for each eye, and creating a stereoscopic 3D image. The goggles have embedded sensors that monitor the wearer's head motions and adjust the image accordingly. The latest version of the Oculus Rift is bolstered by an external positional-tracking accessory, which helps track head movements more accurately. The result is the sensation that you are looking around a 3D world.

Figure 5: oculus view techniquesMotion parallax has to do with the apparent size of an object. If you put a soda can in front of you and then move it closer, it will get bigger in your visual field. Your brain assumes that the can didnt suddenly grow and concludes that its just got closer to you.

Shape-from-shading is a bit trickier. If you stare at a point on an object in front of you and then move your head around, youll notice that the shading of that point changes ever so slightly depending on the lighting around you. The funny thingis that your eyes actually flicker constantly recalculating the tiny differences in shading and your brain uses that information to judge how far away the object is.In the real world, both these cues work together to give you a sense of depth. But in virtual reality systems, theyre not treated equally.

Figure 6: parts of oculus rift4: HOW DOES VIRTUAL REALITY WORKS?For many of us born during the mind 1980s the first thing that strikes us when we hear the term VR is Jonny Quest and Quest world. Quest world was the digital world that could be accessed through a computer program and a special headset. It was a move on the part of Hanna-Barbera productions to introduce the concept of VR to children. So how does VR really work? Quest world captured its essence beautifully but there is much more to it. Today there is a lot of argument on what exactly constitutes a VR experience with many people coming up with their own points but the in general it includes- Three dimensional images that appear life size from the perspective of the viewer The ability to track a users movement especially his/her eyes and head movement and adjust the image on the display to reflect the change in perspectiveNow the question arises how does virtual reality work for this we have to trace its origin to the person who opened the Pandoras Box- Ivan Sutherland. In the year 1968 Sutherland and his student Bob Sprull created the first ever virtual reality head mounted display (HMD) system. This piece of machinery was known as the Sword of Damocles given its formidable appearance. Following closely on the heels of the first ever HMD came the worlds first ever data glove which was invented by Dan Sandin, Richard Sayfre and Thomas Defanti which allowed interaction through body movement in the year 1977. Finally in the year 1983 Myron Krueger came up with the first ever virtual environment called the video space.

Figure7: The Sword of DamoclesThe 1990s experienced a huge boom in VR technology development and those are the research that has given us the three primary models of virtual reality systems used today- Desktop Virtual Reality: This is the simplest of the lot. It works on the principle of a viewer viewing a virtual world through one or more computer screens. The user can interact with the environment but is not completely immersed in it. Video Mapping Virtual Reality: In this method cameras are used to project an image of the user into the computer program creating a 2D computer character. The user is fully immersed in the environment but finds it difficult to interact with its surroundings Immersive Virtual Reality:This model uses a HMD to project a video directly in front of the users eyes and play audio directly into the users ear. The HMD can track the users movement and compensate accordingly. It also uses a Data Glove or to track the users movement and duplicate them in the virtual world. In this type of virtual reality the user experiences complete immersion- the feeling that the user is inside and a part of the world. She/he is also able to interact with the environment in meaningful ways. This sense of immersion and interactivity is called telepresence. If the user is unable to distinguish between the real and virtual environment then the immersion has succeeded.

The basic requirements of a virtual reality system:

One or more powerful computers: Computers are the means through which a virtual environment can be stimulated. Todays computers are so powerful that a PC can run the software required to create a virtual environment. The graphics card created keeping in mind the video game industry are today one of the primary tools from creating advanced and sophisticated virtual environment.

Input or Sensory devices:

Input devices play a vital role in the virtual environment they are the device with which the user interacts with its surroundings. Today sensory devices include data glove, body suit, joysticks and voice recognition. Research is still going on to enable the input devices to be as natural as possible to increase the experience of telepresence.

FIGURE8: Data GloveFIGURE9: Body Suit Output or Display devices: The most common of all display devices in the virtual environment is the HMD. HMDs are headsets which consist of two monitors one for each eye. The two monitors give a stereoscopic effect which gives the feeling of depth. There are some virtual environment systems which projects images on the wall, floors and ceiling of the room and are known as Cave Automatic Virtual Environments (CAVE). Users can move around a CAVE display wearing special goggles which complete the illusion of moving through a virtual environment. CAVE also gives a wider view which helps in the feeling of immersion. Also many people can have the experience together.


Tracking System: Tracking systems are closely related to the display techniques if display techniques are the eyes then the tracking system is the mind in a virtual environment. Tracking systems track the movement of the body and send the right image to the display units so that the experience of telepresence is maximized. The development of tracking system lags behind other virtual reality enabled technology as the tracking system is only virtual reality focused.

Virtual Reality Software: The HMD, the tracking systems and the computers all need to interact with each other to give the user the complete virtual environment. Also the computer needs an interface to create a virtual world which can interact with the user. This need can be fulfilled by various virtual realities enabling software. This software is the connecting link between the hardware and also allows the user to interface with the virtual reality system. Some of the popular virtual reality software available today are: panaroma2 flash, tourweaver, panoweaver, world of warcraft etc.

5: TECHNOLOGIES of VIRTUAL REALITYAfter a deep study of this emerging technology, we have classified Virtual Reality into three types. They are as follows:5.1 Virtual Reality using HardwareThere is a number of hardware developed for the usage by Virtual Reality. Among them some are explained below. 5.1.1 Head Mounted DisplayThe Head mounted display consists of two miniature display screens that produce the stereo scopic images and an optical position tracking system that tracks the orientation of the humans head in the Virtual world and that produces the impulse to the image generating computer.

Figure 12: head mounted

The image-generating computer produces the respective view corresponding to the orientation of the user head in the Virtual world. This is the basic device used in the IVR. As a result the user can see in the direction that he wants and he can walk through the Virtual world. 5.1.2 Boom and CaveTo overcome the intrusiveness with the HMD the Boom and Cave are used. These are also extensively used in the IVR.Screens and stereo scopic image generating apparatus are fixed in a box, which is attached to a multi-link arm. The user peeps into the Virtual world through two holes, and controls his motions with the arms.

Figure 13: boom with controllerThe Cave is an interesting topic in IVR. A cave consists of a cube shaped room. The stereo scopic images are projected on to the walls and the floor of the room with the help of a number of projectors. The head tracking system worn by the leading user controls the view of the Virtual world. Several users may sit on the Virtual world at a time.

Figure 14: virtual cave figure15: technique of virtual cave5.2Virtual Reality using softwareThe most commonly used tools for developing 3d worlds are VRML v1.0, VRML97, VRML v2.0, 3d Studio max, Rhino3d, Amapi3d, ALICE99, BLENDER and other such software. The VRMLv1.0 is the child language developed from the XML family. There arent ma...


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