oasis of resilience, healing and empowering syrian children in za’atari refugee camp

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  • Oasis of ResilienceHealing and empowering Syrian Children in Zaatari refugee camp

    Malda Takieddine

    A design Thesis

    Submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the Master of Landscape Architecture Degree

    University of Washington, 2014

    Committee ChairAssistant Professor Kenneth P. Yocom

    Committee MemberAssistant Professor Benjamin R. Spencer

    Deep appreciation to the following for their comments, insights and support:Associate Professor Lynne Manzo, Associate Professor Julie Johnson, Chair, Associate Professor Jeff Hou,

    Landscape architect and artist Laura Haddad

    Program authorized to offer Degree:College of Built Environments, Department of Landscape Architecture

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  • Oasis of ResilienceHealing and empowering Syrian Children in Zaatari refugee campBy Malda Takieddine

  • ContentsThesis Cover Acknowledgments Thesis Statement & Overview of the Situation Abstract 11Introduction 12

    Background and Problem Definition

    Refugee 16Overview of the Syrian Revolution 20Syrian Children Refugees 23Context of Zaatari Refugee Camp, Jordan 27Oasis of Resilience Project Statement 30Travel Log: Zaatari Refugee Camp, Jordan. 33

    Literature review

    The psychology of child development 58Pedagogy science 72Landscape and Place 78EMERGENCY DESIGN SOLUTION CASE STUDIES 86Proposed design strategies and design prototype

    Design Methodology 112Strategies and Toolkit 115Site Selection 123The Site 125

    The Design Proposal

    Bibliography

    4

  • Table of FiguresFigure0: Dream land, Zaatari Camp, Jordan, @malda Takieddine11Figure 1: Yahya Sweed, 13, is comforted by his father as he lies on a bed in Kfar Nubul on Tuesday, July 16. The boy was injured by shrapnel, resulting in the amputation of his right leg.13Figure 2: A Syrian boy, April 2012, Taftanaz , Syria13Figure 3: Iwan Baan-Umubano Primary School / MASS Design Group14Figure4 : The following two maps show the updated picture of refugee trends in 2011 as published in UNHCR report in 2012 on the world refugee day. They use the total numbers for refugees and people in refugee-like situations according to their country of origin and destination. Excluded in these maps are those refugees whose origin is unknown or who are stateless.17Figure 5:Zamzam Refugee Camp in Darfur @ SUDANPEACENETWORKS BLOG18Figure 6:A Palestinian-refugee camp after World War II @ Clifford D. May18Figure 7: Darfur refugee camp in Chad, 2005 @ Mark Knobil, Wikipedia18Figure 8: Anti-Syrian regime mourners raising their hands as they carry the coffins of Syrian citi-zens killed by Syrian troops, in Daraa, Syria.@ Sham News Network, June 9, 201221Figure 9: @ UN High Commissioner for Refugees, 07 Jan 201422Figure 10: A girl stands on debris next to a damaged building at a besieged area of Homs, August 2, 2012. Picture taken August 2, 2012. REUTERS/Yazen Homsy (SYRIA - Tags: POLITICS CIVIL UNREST)23Figure 11: Children warm themselves around a fire during cold weather in Aleppo, Syria @Reu-ters23Figure 12: Aleppo on December, 201323Figure 13: A photo shows the condition in Zaatari camp, January 2014.24Figure 14: A photo in Dream Land, Zaatari camp, January201424Figure 15: A photo shows the condition in Zaatari camp, January 2014.24Figure 16: Aleppo Media Center via Agence France Presse AFP - Getty Images26Figure 17: An aerial Photo for Zaatari camp and the nearby city, 5 February 2013 @ le service de sant des armes. Photo was taken from Mercy Corps office in Jordan28Figure 18: One of the kids is performing a sketch with Psychologist Shafik Amer, January 201434Figure 19: A souvenir photo with the kids and the one of the trainer in Malki childrens center, January 201434Figure 20: The entrance of the Zaatari Camp. The picture shows people wating, children working, and two trucks of water going in and out the camp, January 2014.35Figure 21: Zaatari camp, Photo of the earlier established areas , January 201436Figure 22: a child play in his Kite, Zaatari camp,201436Figure 23: Zaatari camp in the new established areas in the south west of the camp. January 2014.36Figure 24: Two women next to one of the WASH areas in Zaatari camp and a truck in a back is filling the tanks,201436Figure 25: one of the shop areas in Zaatari camp,201437Figure 26: Picture shows the condition of Zaatari camp, 201437Figure 27: Tailor boutique assembled by refugees in Zaatari camp, January 2014.38Figure 28: one of the shops assembled by refugees in Zaatari camp, January 201438

  • Figure 29: Dream Land, Zaatari camp, January 201440Figure 30: Inside one of Dream Land tents, Zaatari camp, 201440Figure 31: Inside one of Dream Land tents, Zaatari camp, 201440Figure 32: Inside one of Dream Land tents, Zaatari camp, 201440Figure 33: A boys drawing from the drawing exercise,201444Figure 35: A girls drawing from the drawing exercise,201444Figure 34: A Kids drawing from the drawing exercise,201444Figure 36: From the drawing exercise,201445Figure 38: From the drawing exercise,201445Figure 37: From the drawing exercise,201445Figure 39: From the drawing exercise,201446Figure 40: From the drawing exercise,201446Figure 41: From the drawing exercise,201446Figure 42: From the drawing exercise,201447Figure 43: From the drawing exercise,201448Figure 44: From the drawing exercise,201448Figure 45: From the drawing exercise,201448Figure 46: From the drawing exercise,201448Figure 47: From the drawing exercise,201449Figure 48: Next to the sand tent in Dream Land,201450Figure 49: inside the sand tent Dream Land, 201450Figure 50: Adult center in Zaatari camp, 201452Figure 51: Inside the coputer caravan in the adult center, 201452Figure 52: A soccer feild in Zaatari camp,201453Figure 53: A Playground in Zaatari, 201453Figure 54: From the sand exercise,201454Figure 55: From the sand exercise,201454Figure 56: From the sand exercise,201454Figure 57: From the sand exercise,201454Figure 58: From the sand exercise,201454Figure 94 : Overview of the design proposal site111Figure 95: The design methodology that would encourage collaboration 113Figure 95: The Process of Collaboration114Figure 96: War effects on children115Figure 97: Priority issues for refugee childrens places 116Figure 98: The reasons of why to enhance childrens resilience116Figure 99: Toolkit118Figure 100: Territorial range123Figure 101: Mobility and the quality of the landscape124Figure 102: Dream Land Location125Figure 103: Arial photo for Dream Land @Mercy Corps125Figure 105: GIS data for Zaatari camp @UNHCR125Figure 106: The conditions in Dream Land126

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  • Figure 107: Aerial photo for the proposed design 127Figure 108: Guide to design children refugee places 128Figure 109: Year-round sun analysis 128Figure 110: Year-round sun analysis for the Al-Mafraq city 128Figure 111: The site proposed zones 129Figure 112:The first photo above is the Proposed master plan for the site 130Figure 113:Section Cc 130Figure 114-115: On the left, the camps water flow daiagram and next to it the design solution. 130Figure 116Childrens creative work from soft sand 131Figure 117: Childrens creative work from soft sand 131Figure 118: Two beehives joined together, Sarouj village,Syria 131Figure 119:tradional Syrian Beehive. 131Figure 120: vignette for the earth area 132Figure 121: Diagram for the earth areas elements and the process of construction 135Figure 122:A young girl mixing cob in her bare feet. 136Figure 123: A young girl plastering the wall with earth material 136Figure 124: A diagram show the process of integrating women in the process of construction 136Figure 125: Diagram show the relationship between the design and children health according to the toolkit 137Figure 126: Toolkit in relation to the process of design 137Figure 127:Section A-a 138Figure 128: Section B-b 138Figure 129: vignette for the bid structure 139Figure 130: vignette for the bid structure 140Figure 131: diagram to describe the bird structure 142Figure 132: White Book Show Installation 2011, Courtesy of Cal Poly San Luis Obispo Studio 400. 142Figure 33: Sun analysis 143Figure 134: vignette for the care area 144Figure 135: Stick Laying. Chromolithograph from Froebels Kindergarten Occupation for the Family, a kindergarten teaching set for home use. E. Steiger & Company, New York, 1977 146Figure 136: Lollard Adven ture Playground, on the site of a bombed school. The House of Parlia-ment can be seen across the river (Kozlovsky, 2007: 2). 147Figure 137: vignette for the care area 148

  • Copyright 2014, Malda Takieddine

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  • Acknowledgments First, a very special thank you for my thesis committee, Professors Ken Yocom and Ben Spencer,

    for their guidance, encouragement and feedback throughout the process of my thesis. in addition, I also want to thank Professor Lynne Manzo for her support and encouragement. Special thank you also goes to Professor Julie Johnson for all the time and recourses she provided early on and her continuos support and help. Moreover, I would like to thank Professor Daniel Winterbottom for

    giving me hope and encouragement.

    I would like to thank Laura Haddad for being a great friend, a mentor,a source of inspiration, and enhancing my belief in the power of design

    I want to thank my friends Ximena Bustamante, Nina Landey and Hiam Akouri for their time and effort in proofreading my writings

    I want to thank my parents, for always supporting me and their unconditional love.

    I would like to Thank Rita Zawaideh of SCM, Raed Nimri of Mercy Corps and all the great people at the Al-Zaatari camp for facilitating my visit

    I would like to thank the children refugees at the Al-Zaatari camp for spending time with me and allowing me to lear

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