nutrients summer 2

Download Nutrients summer 2

Post on 25-May-2015



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  • 1. What is a Nutrient?- Nutrients are the essentials for the normal functioning of the human bodyIncludes: Carbohydrates Proteins Fats and Lipids Vitamins Minerals Water

2. Facts about Nutrients So called non-essential nutrients are those that can besynthesized by the cell if they are absent from the food Essential nutrients cannot be synthesized within the celland must be present in the food In some animals, microorganisms living in the gut maysynthesize essential nutrients, which are then released intothe bloodstream In most living organisms, nutrients provide not only theenergy necessary for certain vital processes, but also thevarious materials from which all structural and functionalcomponents can be assembled 3. The organic nutrients are the necessary building blocks of various cell components that certainorganisms cannot synthesize and therefore must obtain preformed. These compounds include carbohydrates, protein, and lipids. Other organic nutrients include the vitamins, whichare required in small amounts, because of either the catalytic role or the regulatory role they play inmetabolism. 4. Nutrition in Animals Simple observation reveals that the animal kingdom is dependent on plantsfor food. Even meat-eating, or carnivorous, animals such as the lion feed on grazinganimals and thus are indirectly dependent on the plant kingdom for theirsurvival. Omnivores are miscellaneous species whose teeth and digestive systems seemdesigned to eat a relatively concentrated diet, since they have no large sacor chamber for the fermentation of fibrous material. Carnivores necessarily form only a small portion of the animalkingdom, because each animal must eat a great many other animals ofequivalent size in order to maintain itself over a lifetime. As an evolutionary response to this problem, many leaf eaters, orherbivores, have developed a pouch at the anterior end of thestomach, called the rumen, that provides a space for the bacterialfermentation of ingested leaves. 5. CarbohydratesBy Sanjay Kottapalli andSatya Krishnan 6. Functions Primary source ofenergy Used in lieu of proteinsand other energysources Dietary fiber- (essential,non-digestablecarbohydrates) Calories per Gram: 4Calories Ideal Percentage ofCalories from Carbs:55% 7. Simple vs Complex Carbs Simple Carbohydrates: made of one or two sugar molecules fast burning digested quickly; provide immediate bursts of energy E.g.: table sugar, honey, soft drinks Complex Carbs: many sugar molecules chemically bound together slow burning digested slowly; provide long lasting, stable energy E.g.: oatmeal, whole grain bread, cheerios 8. Glycemic Index Measure of howmuch a carb raisesblood sugar levels Higher GlycemicIndex: Pure glucose(100) Lower GI: Kidneybeans (


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