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Download Nutrients Essential for Health Nutrients Major nutrients in food are classified into six groups. They work in partnership for health. Carbohydrates Fats

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Slide 2 Nutrients Essential for Health Slide 3 Nutrients Major nutrients in food are classified into six groups. They work in partnership for health. Carbohydrates Fats Proteins Vitamins Minerals Water Slide 4 Carbohydrates Your bodys main source of energy or calories. Classified in two groups: complex carbohydrates or sugars. Fiber (a form of complex carbohydrate) aids in digestion and offers protection from diseases. Slide 5 From Complex to Simple All carbohydrates sugars and starches break down to simple sugars during digestion. Simple sugars are glucose, galactose and fructose. Glucose is the main form of carbohydrate used for energy. Slide 6 Energy Storage The body doesnt burn all glucose at the same time. Some gets stored in muscles and liver as glycogen. Some glucose also may be converted to body fat if you consume more calories than your body needs. 1 gram of carbohydrate = 4 calories Slide 7 Carbohydrate Foods Foods with complex carbohydrates form the foundation of a healthful diet Slide 8 Fiber Your bodys broom!!! Not a nutrient because it cannot be absorbed, but it is very important. It bulks up the contents of intestines. High-fiber foods legumes, whole-wheat bread, bran, many cereals, strawberries, Brussels sprouts, most fruits and vegetables, popcorn, grains, nuts, seeds. Slide 9 Fiber We need about 25 grams per day. Most Americans get about 14 grams per day. Slide 10 Fats Supply energy, but also have other functions Transport nutrients Support growth Part of many body cells Made of fatty acids (some fatty acids are more saturated than others). Slide 11 Fats Fats supply 9 calories per gram. Extra fat in the diet is stored as adipose tissue. Fats give a smooth creamy texture to foods. Fats make you feel full. Slide 12 Types of Fat Monounsaturated liquid at room temperature. Canola, nut, and olive oils are high in this fatty acid. Polyunsaturated liquid or soft at room temperature. Corn, safflower, soybean and sunflower oils. Fats in seafood are mainly polyunsaturated. Slide 13 Types of Fat Saturated firm at room temperature and are from animal foods and coconut, palm and palm kernel oils. Trans fatty acids: formed during the process of hydrogenation in which unsaturated fats are made saturated. Found naturally in some foods. Extends shelf life of products. Slide 14 Fats Most all foods contain fat in varying amounts. Some are very high in fat; others have just trace amounts. Be sure to check food label for fat content. Limit total fat intake to no more than 20% to 35% of calories and saturated fat to no more than 10% of calories. Slide 15 Protein Supply amino acids that are building blocks of maintaining and repairing body tissue. The body makes nonessential amino acids; others are essential in food. Proteins provide energy when carbohydrates and fat are in short supply. Slide 16 Protein Foods Lean meat, poultry, fish, eggs, dry beans, tofu, nuts, peanut butter, dairy foods Protein foods are great sources of iron, zinc, B vitamins. Slide 17 Water Regulates body processes Carries nutrients and other body chemicals Carries waste products away Regulates body temperature Makes up 45% 75% of body weight Slide 18 Water To keep your body functioning normally and to avoid dehydration, your body needs an ongoing water supply. The average adult loses about 2 quarts of water daily more in hot weather. Total Fluid Intake Daily: Males (19 & Over) 3.7 liters (125 ounces) Females (19 & Over) 2.7 liters (91 ounces) Slide 19 Water Thirst signals the need for water, but it isnt a foolproof mechanism, especially for the elderly, children or during hot weather, illness or exercise. Slide 20 To increase water supply Take water breaks during the day. Drink water with meals. Alternate sparkling water for soft drinks. Carry water with you. Drink before, during, and after exercise. Slide 21 Vitamins and Minerals The Real Team Players! Slide 22 Vitamins and Minerals Called micronutrients. Dont let the small amount fool you They regulate many processes that produce energy and do a whole lot more. Slide 23 Vitamin Basics Complex organic substances that regulate body processes Often act as coenzymes Two categories: water soluble and fat soluble Water-soluble vitamins: B-complex vitamins and vitamin C Fat soluble vitamins: A, D, E and K Slide 24 Antioxidant Vitamins ACE vitamins A, C and E Slow or prevent the oxidative process Prevent or repair damage to body cells May improve immune function Slide 25 Minerals Not Heavy Metal Slide 26 Major Minerals Needed in greater amounts More than 250 milligrams recommended daily Calcium, phosphorus and magnesium Electrolytes sodium, chloride and potassium Slide 27 Trace Minerals Body needs small amounts less than 20 milligrams daily. Chromium, copper, fluoride, iodine, iron, manganese, molybdenum, selenium and zinc. Others are identified, but less is known about their role in health. All are absorbed in the intestines and transported and stored in parts of the body. Slide 28 Major Minerals - Calcium Builds bones in length and strength Slows the rate of bone loss Reduces risk of osteoporosis Helps muscles contract and heart beat Plays a role in nerve function Helps the blood clot Slide 29 Calcium How Much? How much do you need? AgeAmount per day 9 181,300 mg Adult 501,000 mg Over 501,200 mg Slide 30 Sources of Calcium Milk and other dairy foods Dark green, leafy vegetables Fish with edible bones Calcium-fortified foods Slide 31 Major Minerals - Sodium Electrolyte: Helps regulate movement of body fluids Helps muscles relax (including your heart) Helps transmit nerve impulses Helps regulate blood pressure Slide 32 Sodium How Much? Tolerable upper intake level 2,300 mg daily. 1 teaspoon salt = almost 2,300 mg teaspoon salt = 500 mg. Sources: processed foods, table salt, some naturally occurring in foods. Check the ingredient list for Na, salt, soda or sodium in the name. Slide 33 Sodium Label Lingo Sodium-free less than 5 mg per serving Very low sodium 35 mg or less per serving Low sodium 140 mg or less per serving Reduced or less sodium at least 25% less sodium Slide 34 Trace Minerals - Iron Serves as essential part of hemoglobin and other enzymes Helps in brain development Supports a healthy immune system Slide 35 Iron How Much? RDA for Iron AgeGendermg daily 14 18Males11 14 18Females15 AdultMales8 19 50Females18 51 +Females8 Slide 36 Sources of Iron Heme iron animal sources Meat, poultry, fish Nonheme iron plant sources Leafy green vegetables Dried peas Enriched breads and cereals Slide 37 Phytonutrients Also called Phytochemicals means plant chemicals Compounds in plant-based foods Appear to promote health Slide 38 Phytonutrients How Do They Work? Serve as antioxidants Enhance immunity Enhance communication among body cells Cause cancer cells to die Detoxify carcinogens Repair damage to DNA Slide 39 Vitamin and Mineral Supplements Do you really need them? Slide 40 Dietary Supplements What are they? Slide 41 Supplements? Do you consume a varied, balanced diet? Are you healthy? If you answered yes to both of these questions, you probably get all the vitamins and minerals you need from the foods you eat. Slide 42 Supplements? Under some circumstances, multivitamin/mineral supplements do offer benefits. Follow your doctors advice. Slide 43 Supplements May Be Needed For... Women who are pregnant or breastfeeding Women of childbearing age Women with heavy menstrual cycles Menopausal women Vegetarians People with limited milk intake and sunlight exposure Slide 44 Supplements (cont) Someone on a restrictive diet Persons who do not eat a balanced diet Persons with illnesses that affect nutrient use Some babies after age 6 months, children and teens In all situations, your doctors opinion should be requested. Slide 45 Supplement Labeling Serving size and Daily Value labeling is listed Other ingredients used are also listed FDA Final Rule promotes safe use of Dietary Supplements Slide 46 If You Take a Supplement: Talk with your doctor before using a dietary supplement. Know that some supplements may interact with prescription and over-the- counter medicines. Inform your doctor about all the supplements you use, especially before surgery. Report adverse effects from the use of dietary supplements to MedWatch. Slide 47 If You Take a Supplement: Stick with the label dosage and heed warnings. Follow the label directions. Keep in a safe, cool, dry place. Check the expiration date. Slide 48 Nutrients Essential for Good Health! Our bodies need 6 classes of nutrients. A balanced diet with a variety of foods supplies nutrients needed for good health. Consume high-fat foods in moderation. Always consult your physician about supplement use. Slide 49 Reference: American Dietetic Association Complete Food and Nutrition Guide (3 rd Edition) by Roberta Larson Duyff, MS, RD, FADA, CFCS FDA Consumer Health Information www.fda.gov Presentation Developed By: Cathy Agan, Extension Agent (FNP) Ouachita Parish Slide 50

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