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  • NutrientMining,SoilTestingandPlantNutrientCycling

    RayWardWardLaboratories,IncKearney,Nebraskawww.wardlab.com

    GuidingProducersTodaytoFeedtheWorldTomorrow

  • Nutrient Mining, lbs/BuWHEAT

    Nutrient lb/bu 60bu/ANitrogen,N 1.2 72Phosphorus,P2O5 0.52 31Potassium,K2O 0.26 16Sulfur,S 0.12 7Zinc,Zn 0.003 0.18

  • Nutrient Mining, lbs/BuWHEAT

    Nutrient lb/bu 60bu/AChloride 0.07 4.2Manganese 0.002 0.12Copper 0.0007 0.04Boron 0.001 0.06Molybdenum 0.0004 0.02

  • NutrientContentofWheatStraw

    Nutrient lbspertonNitrogen,N 12Phosphorus,P2O5 2.3Potassium,K2O 29Sulfur,S 4

  • NutrientMining,lbs/BuCORN

    Nutrient lb/bu100bu/A

    Nitrogen, N 0.70 70Phosphorus,P2O5 0.33 33Potassium,K2O 0.23 23Sulfur,S 0.09 9Zinc,Zn 0.001 0.1

  • CropNutrientMining,lbs/buSOYBEAN

    Nutrient lb/bu45bu/ANitrogen,N 3.4 153Phosphorus,P2O5 0.77 35Potassium,K2O 1.2 54Sulfur,S 0.18 8Zinc,Zn 0.0030.09

  • SoilNutrients

    MobileNutrientsNutrientsthataresolubleinthesoilNitrate,Sulfate,andChloride

    ImmobileNutrientsNutrientsthatareattachedtosoilparticlesCECandothersurfacesPhosphorus,Potassium,Calcium,Magnesium,Zinc,Iron,Manganese,Copper,Boron,andMolybdenum

  • TwoApproachesforInterpretingSoilTestValues

    NutrientSufficiency Applyjustenoughtomaximizeprofitabilityintheyearoffertilizerapplication

    Build Maintenance Managesoilteststodesiredsoiltestlevelsandthenapplyenoughfertilizertomaintainthedesiredsoilvalues

  • WhichInterpretationisCorrect?

    DependsonthePlantNutrient MobileNutrientslikenitratehavetobemanagedannually

    Immobilenutrientslikephosphateandpotashcanbebuiltupandmaintained

    DependsonLandTenure Shorttermlandleasesdictateusingthesufficiencyapproach

    LimitedResources Cannotaffordtobuildsoiltestsorfertilizerpricesarehigh

  • WherearetheBiggestYields? ObservationsovertheyearsIhaveconcludedthebestyieldscomefromhightestingsoils.

    ResearchinCanadawithsmallgrainshasshownhigheryieldsonhightestingsoilsthanannualapplicationsoffertilizeronlowtestingsoils.

    Rothamsted ExperimentstationinEnglandhasdemonstratedthatyieldswerehigheronhightestingsoils. CropsandSoils,ASA

  • ImportanceofPhosphorusTribune(KSU)2004

    N,lbsperacreCornYield,Bu/A0 6740 9280 118120 103160 136200 162

  • ImportanceofPhosphorusTribune(KSU)2004

    N+P2O5,lbs/A CornYield,Bu/A0+40 9740+40 14880+40 209120+40 228160+40 231200+40 234

  • Conclusions Highestcropyieldareassociatedwithhighsoiltests

    Canwecontinuetoreachthehigheryieldifweuseafertilityapproachthatminimizesfertilizerapplication,especiallyphosphorusandpotassium?

  • MobileNutrients Nitrate

    Nitrateissoluble.Itmovesdownwardaswatermovesthroughtherootzone.

    WeonlywanttoapplytheamountofNthatisneededforthecurrentcrop.

    NonlegumesneedmoreNthanlegumes(soybeans,alfalfa,andpeanuts).

    Thegoalistohave2to5ppmNO3Nafterharvest.

  • NitrogenRequirement

    Corn 1.2 lbs N/BuWheat 2.4 lbs N/BuMilo 1.1 lbs N/BuGrass 40 lbs N/TonSunflower 50 lbs N/1000 lbs

  • NitrogenRecommendation

    Nlbs/A=(yield*Nreq.)lbsofNO3Nin24or36

    LegumecreditManurecredit

    Irrigationwatercredit

  • NitrogenRecommendation

    AnExample Wheat 60bu/AX2.4=144lbsofNrequired Subtractthefollowing Soilnitrate=30lbsofN Pastlegume=20lbsofN AmountofNtoapply=94lbsofN/A

  • Sulfur Sulfateissolubleandmoveswithsoilwaterlikenitrate.Donottrytobuildsulfate.Somesoilshavesulfateinthesubsoilwhichreducestheneedforsulfur.

    Applysulfurwhensoiltestforsulfateislow.

  • SulfurRequirement

    Crop Yield Unit LBS of SCorn Bushel 0.18-0.26Soybean Bushel 0.20-0.29Wheat Bushel 0.28-0.35Alfalfa Ton 4.7 6.3Grass Ton 2.2 3.6

  • SulfurRecommendationExample

    Wheat60bu/AYieldGoalSulfurRequirementis0.28to0.35lbS/buTotalSRequiredis17to21lbs/ASulfateSoilTestis8ppmS8X2.4=19lbsS/ARecommendationis0 to5 lbsS/A

  • Chloride Chlorideisasolubleionlikenitrate,butdoesnotmoveasfastasnitrate.

    Manysoilsarelowinchloridewherepotashfertilizerisnotused.

    0060ispotassiumchloride,soitis60%K2Oand45%Chloride

    AmmoniumChloride,dryorliquid,isverygoodchloridefertilizer

  • SoiltestchlorideinterpretationsandfertilizerrecommendationsforKansas.

    ____________________________________________________________SoilChlorideina024"sample ClRecommended*

    Category lb/acre ppm lb/acre__________________________________________________________

    __Low 6 0

    ____________________________________________________________

    *Recommendationsforcorn,sorghumandwheatonly.

  • PhosphorusRecommendations

    SoiltestppmP Rating lbsP2O5/A05 VeryLow 60140612 Low 35751325 Medium 20452650 High 03051+ VeryHigh None

  • Phosphorus(MyGoals) IdealPhosphorusSoilTest:

    Drylandareas=2228ppmP Irrigated/highrainfallareas=3040ppmP

    HowtoGetThere Soiltexture:loamorheavier

    18lbsofP2O5toraisesoilPtest1ppmP Soiltexture:sandtosandyloam

    12lbsofP2O5toraisesoilPtest1ppmP

  • Phosphorus

    HowtoGetThereExampleforasiltloam Soiltestis15ppmPandIwanttogetto25ppmP

    25 15=20ppmincrease 10X18=180lbsofP2O5 180/.52=346lbsof11520 Howmanyyearsdoyouwanttotaketogetthere?Dividebythenumberofyears.Thisapplicationisinadditiontoamountyounormallyapply.

  • PotassiumRecommendations

    Soil Test ppm K Rating lbs K2O0-40 Very Low 90-20041-80 Low 50-12081-120 Medium 25-60121-200 High 0-35201+ Very High None

  • Potassium(MyGoals) HowtoGetThereExampleforasiltloam

    Soiltestis120ppmKandIwanttogetto160ppmK

    160120=40ppmincrease 40X9= 360lbsofK2O 360/0.60=600lbsof0060 Howmanyyearsdoyouwanttotaketogetthere?Dividebythenumberofyears.Thisapplicationisinadditiontoamountyounormallyapply.

  • Zinc

    Ihavefoundthatthebestwaytocorrectalowzincsoiltestistobroadcastenoughzincsulfate(33to36%Zn)toraisethezincsoiltestabove1ppm.

    Onepoundofactualzincwillraisethezincsoiltest0.1ppmZn. Znrecommendation=(1.0 Znsoiltest)times10 Znsoiltest=0.60:(1.00 0.60)X10=4lbsofZn/A

  • Copper CoppersoiltestsarelowinafewareaofthePlains.

    FormostcropsIliketoseeacopper(Cu)valueof0.20ppmP.ForafewcropslikepotatoesItrytoraisetheCusoiltestto0.60ppmCu.

    ThreepoundsofCuwillraisethesoiltest0.10ppmCu

    Curec.=(0.20 .12)X3=2.4lbsofCu

  • Boron Boronislesssolublethansomeoftheanions. Butboronhasanarrowsaferange.DonottrytobuildBsoiltest.BoronshouldbeappliedwhentheBsoiltestislessthan0.25ppm,exceptforcotton,peanutsandsugarbeetsthatneed0.50ppmB.

    Brecommendation=OnepoundofBwillraisethesoiltest0.10ppmB.Example:forwheat,corn,milo,etc.

    1.5 (5x0.20)=(1.5 1.0)=0.5lbsB

  • NoTillFertilizerProgram

    Itisbesttoknifeinnitrogen DonotdoaweedandfeedprogramforN Phosphorusandothernutrientscanbebroadcastorplacedinaband

    SecondalternativeforNisstreamonUANorbroadcasturea

    Splitapplicationisnecessaryforsandysoils.

  • Liming Reaction

  • NutrientCycle?

    1. Nutrientsareremovedfromthelandanytimegrainorforageistransportedfromthearea.

    2. Howarethenutrientsreplaced?Higheryieldsthemorenutrientsthathavetobereplaced.

    3. Carbonandsomenitrogencomesfromtheair.4. Othernutrientshavetocomefromsoilminerals,

    decompositionoforganicmatter,manuresandfertilizer.

  • Calcium and Magnesium Lime

    480 lbs of Ca per ton of 60 % ECC Wheat

    9 lbs of Ca per ton of dry forage 2.8 lbs of Mg per ton of dry forage

    Turnips 66 lbs of Ca per ton of dry forage 7 lbs of Mg per ton of dry forage

  • Carbon/OrganicMatter

    SoilOrganicMatter Carbonandallplantnutrients

    1%OMin8inchesofSoilis24,000lbs/A ThisQuantityofOMHoldsAbout1400lbsof

    Nand200lbsofSperAcre.

  • NoTillSulfurDeficiency

    MostoftheSulfurinthesoilisheldintheorganicmatterportionofthesoil

    Theideaisthebuildsoilorganicmattertoimprovesoilqualityandhealthandincreasesoilproductivity.

    100C:10N:1.4S

  • A/CGreenfix BlendAboveGroundBiomassTestResults

    10/11/2010(4reps)High Low Avg.

    Yld.T/A 2.95 2.05 2.39

    Nutrients in#/A

    C 2373 1743 1958

    N 125 105 118

    P205 18 10 14

    K20 232 134 187

    Ca 99 46 67

    Mg 14 9 11

    S 18 9 15

    Zn 0.72 0.41 0.63

    Fe 2.94 1.87 2.20

    Mn 0.35 0.24 0.28

    C:N=16.6

    Grass% Brassica % Legume%

    0 41 59

  • NutrientUptakeandRootStructure

  • FactorsAffectingNutrientUptake

    OxygenTemperature

    IonInterference

  • SoilOrganicMatter

    Enhancecropproductivity Buildsoilfertility Improvestructure Buildaggregatestability Increasenutrientretention Increasewaterholdingcapacity

  • SoilStructure

    Retention&transportofwater&nutrients

    HabitatforMicrobesReducedSoilErosion

  • PoorSoilStructurePreventsWaterMovement

    Water

    SaturatedSoil

    AirSpace

    MoistureSoil

    DrySoil

  • RainfallSimulator

  • WaterPenetration

  • No. 1 Environmental Enemy in Production Agriculture

    IntensiveTillage

  • Nutrient Balance and Carbon Sequestration.

    Net carbon sequestration requires other nutrients.

    7 10 units of C per unit of N

    50 60 units of C per unit of P

    70 80 units of C per unit of S

    Balanced fertilization is needed for both crop uptake and carbon sequestration!

    Rattan Lal, 27 Jan., 2000

    C

    N P

    KS

    ZnCa

    Mg

    Mn

    Bo

    Cletc.

  • C

    Soil carbon is the Keystone for all soil physical, chemical and biological processes and properties.

    N PK Ca

    Mg S

    Zn Mn

    Cl Bo

    Managementplatformfertility,variety,irrigation,species,covercrop,manur

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