Nutrient Availability Section I Soil Fertility and Plant Nutrition.
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<ul><li> Slide 1 </li> <li> Nutrient Availability Section I Soil Fertility and Plant Nutrition </li> <li> Slide 2 </li> <li> Nutrient Availability Defined Available nutrients are those that are present in the correct chemical form for uptake by a plant during its life cycle. Available nutrients may be derived from the solid portion of the soil or the atmosphere. Nutrients must be taken up as ions or molecules from soil solution or through the leaf from the atmosphere. </li> <li> Slide 3 </li> <li> Nutrient Availability and Soil Fertility Much of the science of soil fertility is concerned with the: Measurement and Adjustment of Nutrient Availability </li> <li> Slide 4 </li> <li> Slide 5 </li> <li> Nutrient Availability Chemical Availability Is the nutrient in the proper chemical form and concentration for plant needs? Positional Availability Is the nutrient accessible by the plant? Relates to fertilizer placement Physiological Availability Is the plant able to take up the nutrient? Other growth-limiting factors can intervene </li> <li> Slide 6 </li> <li> Measuring Nutrient Availability What should a soil test measure? Soluble nutrient only? Other forms? What are available nutrients anyway? </li> <li> Slide 7 </li> <li> Chemical Availability Available Nutrient forms (macronutrients) NNO 3 -, NH 4 + PH 2 PO 4 -, HPO 4 2- KK + SSO 4 2- CaCa 2+ MgMg 2+ </li> <li> Slide 8 </li> <li> Chemical Availability Available Nutrient forms (micronutrients) ClCl - MoMoO 4 2- FeFe 2+, Fe 3+ MnMn 2+, Mn 3+ ZnZn 2+ CuCu 2+, Cu + NiNi 2+ BH 3 BO 3 </li> <li> Slide 9 </li> <li> Minerals and Soil Nutrients (1) Common Soil MineralsNutrients provided FeldsparsCa, Mg, Fe, Na, K ApatiteP Iron oxidesFe CarbonatesCa, Mg Clay MineralsSi, Ca, Mg, Fe, K,Mn, Zn, Cu </li> <li> Slide 10 </li> <li> Minerals and Soil Nutrients (2) Clays are important sources of several nutrients, through the mechanism of cation exchange. Exchangeable Ca, K, and Mg are important sources of these nutrients in soils </li> <li> Slide 11 </li> <li> Organic Matter and Soil Nutrients Soil organic matter is an important source of the plant nutrients N, P,S SOM must be ___________________ before these nutrients are available for plant uptake. decomposed </li> <li> Slide 12 </li> <li> Nutrient Availability - Positional In addition to being in the proper form, nutrients must be in the proper location for plant uptake to occur. Depth of plant root zone affects where the plant can extract nutrients Fertilization methods, irrigation methods can affect nutrient distribution. </li> <li> Slide 13 </li> <li> Nutrient Mobility in Soil Soil volume exploited for mobile nutrients: N, S Soil volume exploited for immobile nutrients: Most others </li> <li> Slide 14 </li> <li> Consequences of Nutrient Mobility Interpretation of soil test values Mobile total available nutrient within the root zone is available for uptake Immobile Only a small fraction of available nutrient within the root zone is available for uptake Placement of fertilizers </li> <li> Slide 15 </li> <li> Soil Tests Courtesy IAS Laboratories, Phoenix, AZ </li> <li> Slide 16 </li> <li> Positional Nutrient Availability Fluid Journal, Fall 2001, used without permission </li> <li> Slide 17 </li> <li> Apply immobile nutrients here </li> <li> Slide 18 </li> <li> Nutrient Availability In addition to being in the proper form and in the proper location, plants must physiologically be able to take up the nutrients. Uptake of some nutrients requires energy (active uptake) Some nutrients compete with others for uptake. e.g. Ca, Mg, K, and Na compete </li> </ul>
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