nut desp fcnaup 2014 parte 3

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    Total body water

    TBW ~60% of body (45-75%); 65% ICW + 35% ECW

    Trained athletes have relatively high TBW values

    high muscle mass (70-80%) and low body fat (10%)

    higher glycogen reserves (3mL H2O/g glicognio)

    Regulated within 0.2 to 0.5% of body mass

    pH, osmolality, temperature, metabolite output

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    HYDRATION ASSESSMENT

    3 (> ) consecutive morning nude BW measurements after voiding baseline value

    Acute changes in nude BW during exercise ~ sweat losses fluid replacement

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    Drink ~57 mL/kg at least 4 h before the exercise

    If does not produce urine or the urine is dark or highly concentrated

    Drink another ~35 mL/kg about 2 h before the event

    Imediatamente antes (?)

    5mL/kg Burke, 2000

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    Ingerir mxima quantidade sem desconforto para manter perdas 2h ou perdas >3-4g

    Cafena: 1,5mg/kg nos ltimos 40min

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    Players at risk of extreme sweat or sodium losses should:

    Increase their dietary salt intake

    During exercise, add extra sodium to fluids (1.5g of salt/L)

    At the first sign of cramps 3 g salt ( tsp) in 600 ml of fluid

    Old practices (salt tablets, bananas, pickle juice ??) are not effective

    Plasma [Na+] < 130 mmol/L headache, vomiting, swollen hands/feet, disorientation (due to

    encephalopathy), and wheezy breathing (due to pulmonary edema) seizure, coma,

    respiratory arrest, and death.

    Cause of hyponatremia?

    In events sweating rate) of hypotonic fluids

    In ultra-endurance events, excessive loss of total body sodium is the primary factor

    At greater risk: smaller and less lean individuals, women, older adults, who run slowly, sweat

    less, are less well trained and drink hypotonic fluids heavily

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    Athletes must no gain weight during exercise!

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    Will stimulate thirst and glucose absorption, retain fluids, without any detrimental effects on

    health, provided that fluid is enough and renal function is not impaired.

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    48% had iron deficiency (low ferritin levels) without anaemia Performance Those with iron deficiency had significantly greater calcium intake

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    Excessive ROS production

    Sarcolemmal phospholipids peroxidation muscle damage

    Damage ATPase pumps, muscle contractile and mitochondrial proteins fatigue

    Promote local inflammation delayed-onset muscle soreness and recovery

    Oxidative stress adversely affect immune function

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    Salmo selvagem 500-1000 UI/100g, cativeiro 100-250 UI/100g Chen, 2007

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    Skin pigmentationAge

    Time of the daySeasonLatitude

    Smog/cloudSunscreen useTime outdoor

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    20-40 ng/mL

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    Injuried football players had lower vit D levels than uninjuried Shindle, 2011

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    5.000IU/d for 8 weeks

    29 103 nmol/L

    Athletes may require 800-7000 IU/d to achieve optimal status.

    Higher: indoor sports, darker skin, adiposity, live/train > 35-37, extensive clothing and use sunblock.

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    Nausea

    Vomiting Poor appetite Constipation Weakness

    Weight loss Mental confusion Cardiac rhythm irregularities Calcification of soft tissues

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    1. If you were offered a banned performance-enhancing substance that guaranteed thatyou would win an Olympic medal and you could not be caught, would you take it?

    2. Would you take a banned performance-enhancing drug with a guarantee that you will notbe caught, you will win every competition for the next 5 years, but will then die from adverseeffects of the substance?

    98%

    > 50%

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    Cafena

    Reduo da percepo de esforo Maior recrutamento de unidades motoras

    Ergogenic at low doses 3mg/kg Graham et al 1995

    Reduces perception of fatigue, enhances central drive Graham et al 2004

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    Creatina

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    300mg/kg + gua (>0,5L), 1 ou 2 h antes do exerccio

    600mg/kg repartido em vrias tomas durante o dia

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    Bicarbonato Citrato Beta-alanina Carnosina

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    Maughans Rules of Dietary Supplements

    1. If it works, its probably banned

    2. If its not banned, then it probably doesnt work

    3. There may be some exceptions